Introduction and Literature Search: Smoking Cessation (Research Proposal Sample)
To refine skills in developing a research topic, writing the introduction to a research proposal, and in the preparation for justifying a project relative to other research. In the assignment you are required to write a research rationale, two different types of research question, define key terms, report on a systematic search and make a table of the most relevant research literature. A. Research rationale including the key terms (approx. 500 words) This section is written as the Introduction to the assignment; it involves development of your topic outline from Assignment 1 - Which educational strategy is most effective in cessation of smoking in a patient with a history of cardiac surgery and maintains smoking cessation at six months post intervention? . The rationale shows how significant doing this research is and consists of the problem statement and its background. Your background should define key terms (using literature) so that non-specialist readers can understand the relevance of the problem; it should also include reference to the problem in practice and consideration of the problem in the national and international contexts. Consider the relative benefits and risks of researching THE particular topic. B. Two research questions and research aim/s (approx. 200 words) Two different types of research questions are required that could legitimately be used to address the problem as a whole or in part the question is as above referring to educational strategies that best impact on smoking cessation following cardiac surgery at six months. One of the research questions must be able to be addressed using a qualitative research design and the other able to be used with a quantitative design. Also, write an aim for each of the research questions C. Search (approx. 300 words) In this section demonstrate that you have undertaken a systematic search by presenting your search terms, search strategy (ie search strings with Boolean operators, delimiters and databases) and a summary of the search results. Note that it is common to revise strategies and/or repeat search strategies creating different stages in the research; also different strategies might be used for different databases. A table (not included in word limit) may be used to outline the stages of the search and the number of articles found at each stagesource..
Smoking is a harmful habit and practice, relative to the impacts that it has on the respiratory system. According to the CDC, smoking causes more deaths in one year that, illegal drug abuse, HIV, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries and firearm related injuries combined (CDC, 2016). Ideally, cigarette smoking is estimated to cause more than 480,000 deaths every year in the United States alone (CDC, 2016). The impact of the same at the international level is staggering (Jha & Peto, 2014). More than 6 million people die each year from smoking according to the World Health Organization (World Health Organization, 2016). More than 5 million of these deaths, are related to direct smoking, while more than 600,000 are due to second hand smoke (World Health Organization, 2016). There are quite a number of health risks associated with smoking, most of which contribute to the large number of deaths (Fiore et al., 2004). Smoking leads to development of cardiovascular diseases such as stroke and coronary heart diseases (The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, 2015). The habits tends to damage the blood vessels as it makes them to become thicker and narrower, making the heart beat faster and rises as a result. It is also common for the smokers to develop blood clots which are associated with stroke (Koop, Richmond, & Steinfeld, 2004). Other than the cardiovascular diseases, smoking is also known to cause respiratory diseases, such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma attacks. It is also related to several cancers, such as to the, bladder, esophagus, liver, stomach, larynx, blood, cervix, colon, kidney, trachea, pancreas and the lungs (CDC, 2016). Other effects include ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, orofacial clefts, low sperm count and cataracts among others ("QuickStats: Number of Deaths from 10 Leading Causesâ€”National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2010", 2013).
In light of the effects that smoking has on one's health, efforts to quit are quite crucial and the benefits are subtle. According to the CDC, just after one year of quitting the health risks drop sharply. The best approach to assist smokers to quit, is to help them understand the danger of smoking and benefits of quitting (Healton & Nelson, 2004). This is a more practical approach, as they are able to understand the differences between continuing on with the habit and the benefits that they would accrue from quitting. This is also an approach that is more likely to last the smokers in the program for more than six months, other than simply indicating to them the cause and effects of their habits. As such, this research mainly relies on the non-positivist paradigm and specifically the critical theory (Aston, 2016). Ideally, the research is geared towards helping smokers understand the implications of their habits to their health and even to those of others such as standers by and even their children. Additionally, understanding the benefits that accrue from quitting the habit further reinforce the elements of smokers committing to the program for more than six months (Levy, Mabry, Graham, Orleans, & Abrams, 2010). For patients that have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting, this is a more important program, relative to the fact that, the cause of the disease is smoking. If the patients continue smoking after the surgery, they risk further damaging the arteries and even death. The success of the procedure thus rests in the patients understanding the impacts that smoking has to their health, relative to the events leading to the surgery and the impacts that continued smoking is likely to have on the health after the surgery. Understanding the smoking is the cause of the surgery in the first p...
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