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15 pages/≈4125 words
5 Sources
Health, Medicine, Nursing
Research Proposal
English (U.S.)
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HLT-490V-R5: Increase cost of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (Research Proposal Sample)


Prepare your final evidence-based practice proposal for a project whose focus is the resolution of an issue or problem significant to improving patient care. (Patients are conceptualized as individuals, groups, families, or communities.) Make all necessary revisions and corrections to previous assignments completed in Topics 1- 4. Combine all elements into one cohesive evidence-based proposal. Although recommendations will vary in length depending upon the problem or issue addressed, the paper must be between 4,500 and 5,000 words and formatted in APA style. The title page, abstract, appendixes, and references are not included in the word limit. The final paper should clearly describe the methods used to identify and retrieve the evidence as well as the rationale for exploring the clinical issue chosen. Clearly articulated recommendations for practice based on research evidence are essential to a successful paper. Use section headings for each section component and address responses in narrative form. Sections of the final paper must include all of the components written to date (incorporating revisions), as well as the remaining sections. These sections include: 1. Title Page 2. Abstract 3. Introduction 4. Problem 5. Purpose 6. Question 7. Literature Review 8. Theory 9. Proposed Solution 10. Implementation Plan 11. Dissemination Plan 12. Conclusion/Summary 13. Reference Page 14. Appendices (if any) Note that an Abstract and Appendix are not required in the individual assignments, but are expected to be added for the final version of the paper. Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is required.


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This research proposal explores fourteen published articles that report on interventions to be taken in order to reduce Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) burden. The articles present various evident-based interventions that when utilized can lead to a significant decrease in financial challenges associated with COPD. Exacerbations resulting from the disease are known to be the major cause of increased mortality and morbidity, and also increase the risk of advanced COPD progression. In the advanced cases of the disease, patients are likely to suffer more aggravated symptoms; this then leads to increased costs in the management of the debilitating disease. The paper will also look into an important theory – the self-determination theory – which is critical in the implementation and integration of the learned interventions and knowledge. Afterwards, proposed solutions to the problem of increased costs in COPD management will be discussed. Alongside these solutions, a well-defined implementation plan will be provided together with a detailed dissemination plan. The dissemination plan helps the evidence-based information related to lowering COPD costs reach intended audience. Lastly, a conclusive summary of any gaps in the research materials will be addressed and areas of correction in the future provided.
Keywords: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, exacerbations, self-determination theory.
Increased Cost of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Introduction
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a general term for two debilitating conditions of the airway, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Normally, the condition is associated with increased air flow resistance into the lungs. When there is any form of resistance to the normal flow of air into the lungs, breathing problems occur. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is considered an economic burden, especially in the modern world due to the huge amounts of money required in the management of the disease. Like in all chronic diseases, the economic burden brought about by COPD may either be direct or indirect. Direct costs refer to costs that are incurred in the healthcare setting while managing the condition. As such, costs related to diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and overall COPD management are considered direct costs. On the other hand, indirect costs refer to both mortality and morbidity caused by COPD. In this case, costs related to inability to work are considered indirect.
In the United States, for example, the total expenditure utilized in COPD management totaled $49.9 billion in 2010. Of the $49.9 billion, $20 billion were indirect costs while the remaining $29.9 billion went into direct expenditures in health care settings. The costs are indeed expected to rise due to increasing number of new COPD cases that are being diagnosed annually. It is currently projected that each COPD patient takes approximately $4,000 every year. A study was conducted on 78 patients at various stages of COPD by McDonough et al (2011) to analyze how Small-Airway Obstruction relates to the risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. The study showed that narrow airways led to increased air flow resistance in COPD patients. This study serves as the first body of evidence that exacerbations brought about by airway narrowing leads to increased COPD risk.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations underline the main theme of this paper. Exacerbations are referred to as acute phases of COPD usually characterized by unstable and worsening conditions in the respiration. Such cases of exacerbations require urgent solutions in order to stabilize the patient; such solutions include...
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