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7 pages/≈1925 words
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Health, Medicine, Nursing
Research Proposal
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Congestive Heart Failure: Literature Review (HLT-490V) (Research Proposal Sample)


Locate a minimum of 15 peer-reviewed articles that describe the problem or issue and that support the proposed solution. Eight of the 15 articles must be research-based (i.e., a study which is qualitative, quantitative, descriptive, or longitudinal).
The "Table of Evidence" document is a tool you can use to organize information from the study articles you have chosen for your literature review. Use this tool as a guide to ensure you have captured the key information that should be incorporated into your literature review narrative.
Begin your search for literature by utilizing the databases located in the GCU Library. Contact your instructor, the librarian, or library staff for additional researching tips and keyword suggestions.
Preview each of the 15 articles chosen by reading the article abstracts and summaries. Article abstracts and summaries provide a concise description of the topic, research outcomes, and significance of findings.
Analysis and Appraisal
Write an analysis and appraisal (1,500-2,000 words): This section should build and support your case, in the reader's mind, of why your problem, purpose, and proposed solution are valid.
Remember, you are building an argument to prove your case to do this project; this is not simply an article review.
Analyze and appraise the selected articles to support your problem, purpose, and solution. Appraise each article by answering the following questions (one to two sentences is sufficient to answer each question):
1.How does the article describe the nature of the problem, issue, or deficit you have identified?
2.Does the article provide statistical information to demonstrate the gravity of the issue, problem, or deficit?
3.What are some examples of morbidity, mortality, and rate of incidence or rate of occurrence in the general population?
4.Does the article support your proposed change?
Group the analyses based on the content of the articles and the support each article provides for your project.
Incorporating a Theory
In addition to the review of the literature and theory paper, write a paper of 250-500 words in which you:
1.Find a theory that will assist you in your implementation or support your solution to your problem.
2.Describe this theory in simple terms.
3.Describe why this theory supports your project.
4.Describe how you will incorporate this theory.
General Requirements:
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.


Congestive Heart Failure: Literature Review
The Background of the Problem
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) is a lethal disease mostly prevalent among people older than 65 years of age. The failing of the heart within this group is especially rife among patients with a history of recurrent heart failure, requiring early admissions (Vinson et al. 1990). McMurray (2010) states that 1-2% of the population in developed countries experience congestive heart failure, with high frequency lying on individuals older than 70 years old. Additionally, Neubauer (2007) points out that 30-40% of CHF patients die within one year of receiving treatment from the disease. Heart failure presumably consists of 2% of the annual health budget in the United Kingdom, while the United States requires a whooping $28 billion annually for the treatment of the disease (Neubauer, 2007). Therefore, the lethal nature of the disease and its implications in the economy of many countries cannot be understated.
The common etiologic precursors for CHF are coronary heart disease, hypertension, genetic inheritance, abuse of alcohol and viral infection among other causes (McMurray, 2010). A study done by McKee, Castelli, McNamara and Kannel (1971) for 16 years involving 5192 patients where 142 developed CHF, revealed that hypertension contributed to 75% of the etiologic precursors. Hypertension also accompanied coronary heart disease and precursive rheumatic heart disease. The study revealed that the susceptibility to succumbing to the disease within the first five years was 62% for men and 42% for women.
Neubauer (2007) also suggests a model where the heart muscles or myofibrils failing to produce enough energy needed to pump the heart. This is because the heart requires a lot of energy every day to pump more than 10,000 liters of blood around the body. In the 10,000 times it beats during the day, it uses approximately 10Kg of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). The complex nature of CHF makes management difficult since the disease has a recurrent habit. Many reported cases of CHF usually undergo treatment but readmission remains to be so high. Li, Nancy, and Proctor (2004) observed this scenario where an annual mortality rate of CHF patients stood at 10% despite medical intervention to the problem.
Similarly, Proctor, Nancy, Li and Dore (2000) highlight the worrying trend of readmission among CHF patients. Many of the patients who undergo medical treatment and nursing care find themselves back in the hospital despite previously receiving treatment. A study done by Hopp, Thornton, and Martin (2010) revealed that most CHF patients face great challenges after discharge from hospitals. What contribute to their prevalence to readmission are social isolation, life disruption, and ambiguity about symptoms and prognosis. Lack of proper knowledge about the disease management, social support, and handling the dying process makes many of them susceptible to readmission in acute conditions (Stewart, Marley, & Horowitz, 1999). Additionally, lack of adherence to prescribed medicine and diet also contributes to this, accounting to almost 29-47% of readmission after three to six months after original discharge (Rich, Beckham, Wittenberg, Leven, Freedland and Carney, 1995).
Factors affecting prescription compliance
Many medical practitioners have struggled to understand and solve the puzzle of recurrent CHF. Despite patients undergoing extensive pharmacotherapy, the prognosis of CHF continued to be impoverished (McAlister, Stewart, Ferrua, & McMurray, 2004). Patients once discharged with reduced CHF conditions will return several months later in worse or very severe conditions; some succumbing to the ailment finally. The need to reduce unplanned readmissions and prolong survival of CHF patie...
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