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Research Proposal
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LRNT 506: M-Learning Application for Second Language Acquisition (Research Proposal Sample)


I recommend that you(writer) should write/add the literature review section at the bottom of assignment1:Introduction paper I provided. 
And I attached a file about my thought for assignment2 today.
This paper is research proposal. Based on the draft introduction of this research proposal I attached, you (writer) have to write the literature review section with 1500ish words. This is the main section of this order. First off, you(writer) have to read assignment2 description, unit description and my preliminary idea for assignment2 I attached on order website. You have to follow the writing criteria from instructor in the documents: assignment2 description and unit description. I also attached the samples of assignment2 for your information on order website.
After reading related literature either articles/references I provided or you select freely that need to be collected in order to answer the research questions, the literature review should begin with a chapter/section regarding the theoretical framework(s) that you are approaching this research from, provide some explanation as to what that/those framework(s) is/are, why it's an appropriate choice, and how you will apply it to this research. Instructor mentioned she would expect at least 13 that are academic (peer reviewed journal articles, chapters in edited books). I attached related articles but you can extend/select to read other useful related articles you found. You don¡¯t set limits to select related literatures by articles I attached. They are things I have found until now. There will be more useful articles you can find. Choosing literatures is up to you(writer). 
After writing the literature review section, you(writer) have to review/consider the instructor¡¯s feedback and make revisions to the two paragraphs of introduction section based on (Instructor)Deborah¡¯s comments,[d3]to[d9] within 200ish words. You(writer) have to revise the two paragraphs at the beginning of Introduction section to be logical in a seamless way. And if needed, you(writer) are allowed to revise the research question and sub questions a bit based on your literature review reflection.
Total words of this order are overall 1700ish words: the literature review section is 1500ish word and the revision of the beginning of introduction is 200ish words.


M-Learning Application for Second Language Acquisition
Assignment2: the literature review
LRNT 506
January 10, 2016
Literature Review
Theoretical frameworks
The theoretical background for this research is rooted in two theories: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the socio-cultural theory (SCT). TAM has been utilized in measuring, predicting, and explaining the behaviour of people with regard to their rejection or acceptance following the introduction of new technology (Davis, 1989; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989). The Technology Acceptance Model suggests that the perceived ease of utilization and usefulness affect the attitude of users towards using technologies in the process of learning (Huang, Lin, & Chuang, 2007). In this research, Technology Acceptance Model is appropriate as it would be used in measuring, predicting and explaining learners’ acceptance of mobile devices and technologies in learning a second language – that is, in second language acquisition. Socio-cultural theory is also relevant to this research. SCT is rooted in Vygotskian thought, and it is essentially a theory regarding the development of human cognitive, as well as higher mental, function (Lantolf, 2006). SCT postulates that the growth of human cognitive as well as higher mental function originates from social interactions. A child’s early language learning, from a social-cultural perspective, is due to processes of meaning-making in joint activity with other individuals of a particular culture. The principles of SCT are applicable to second language acquisition: learning is entrenched in social events and occur as the individual interacts with others individuals, events, as well as objects within the environment (Lantolf, 2006). The knowledge of Socio-Cultural Theory could be useful for educators to determine and develop ways of setting up activities and tasks that could allow for the facilitation of language learning, for instance by employing Mobile Learning or mLearning.
Review of literature
A more recent change in the teaching of English language has certainly been the utilization of tablets and mobile phones in language learning. By using the phones, learners get to learn the fundamental aspects of conversational English (Kim, 2012). In the context of learning, the usage of mobile devices such as cellphones and tablets is referred to as mobile assisted language learning (Krashen, 1981). The concept of mLearning has permeated through people because of its mobility in accessing knowledge and information across space and time. There is a mounting body of literature on mLearning. MLearning is rapidly securing its place in the contexts of language learning. A vital area that needs to be considered during the implementation of any new mLearning technology is the willingness of the users to utilize the new technology effectively. There are balancing areas for this perspective: these are learner training and instructor education (Wu, 2015). Instructors who plan to include technology in their curriculum require knowledge of technological pedagogical content. Such knowledge for language educators entails pedagogical and technological knowledge and skills particularly for their discipline (Krashen, 1981). Researchers have reported that mobile technologies have a significant effect on boosting the confidence of learners in speaking and listening, and mobile devices also enable knowledge building (Duman, Orhon & Gedik, 2015).
The development of wireless and mobile technologies has served to open up an extensive range of possibilities within the domain of language learning. For the past decade and a half, there have been a number of trials of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) apps (Lu, 2011). Kukulska-Hulme and Shield (2008) offer evaluations of quite a few MALL developments sinc...
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