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Life Sciences
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Evolution Paper Assignment (Research Paper Sample)

i request the essay for the final evolution paper assignment which is worth 75 points(not prep). please check the rubric that will be used to grade my paper. so much appreciate for your help! source..
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Evolution Paper
Evolution according to Collins dictionary means gradual change in the characteristics of living things over successive generations, especially to a more complex form. My definition, evolution is gradual development, expansion, maturation or progress of life in different ways. Science defines evolution as the process by which species of organisms arise from earlier life forms and undergo change overtime through natural selection.
The modern understanding of the origins of species is based on Greenberger (11) theories on Charles Darwin combined with a modern knowledge of genetics based on the work Gregory Mendel (Edelson 51). Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organization, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins. Heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a long polymer composed of four types of bases.
The sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specifies the genetic information, in a manner similar to a sequence of letters spelling out a sentence. Before a cell divides, the DNA is copied, so that each of the resulting two cells will inherit the DNA sequence. Portions of a DNA molecule that specify a single functional unit are called genes; different genes have different sequences of bases (Virgilio 123). Within cells, the long strands of DNA form condensed structures called chromosomes. The specific location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is known as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles. DNA sequences can change through mutations, producing new alleles. If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the organism (Durrett 5).
However, while this simple correspondence between an allele and a trait works in some cases, most traits are more complex and are controlled by multiple interacting genes. Recent findings have confirmed important examples of heritable changes that cannot be explained by changes to the sequence of nucleotides in the DNA (Durrett 8). These phenomena are classed as epigenetic inheritance systems. DNA methylation marking chromatin, self-sustaining metabolic loops, gene silencing by DNA interference and the three dimensional conformation of proteins (such as prions) are areas where epigenetic inheritance systems have been discovered at the organismic level.
Developmental biologists suggest that complex interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can lead to heritable variations that may underlay some of the mechanics in developmental plasticity and canalization. Heritability may also occur at even larger scales. For example, ecological inheritance through the process of...
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