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Health, Medicine, Nursing
Research Paper
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Clostridium botulinum Health, Medicine, Nursing Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)


In the attached PDF only answer PART B. The guidelines for the paper are clearly given. Research both recent and older sources on the bacteria and remember to COMPARE and CONTRAST research over time. This is a research paper so write according to the level of a Biochemistry/Microbiology student.


BIOL3150 S2020 -  Assignment. To be done in pairs. Indicate who worked on which section.

Part A:

Discuss the Appelbaum and Caesarian questions (below) Devote One page maximum to each subject. Ensure that you properly reference. Remembner that you are commenting and supporting not simply summarizing a list of references on the topic. What is new? What issues are contentious? Etc. This is due on the 3rd of July. It must include up to date primary research. (3%) **Use this assignment to hone your writing and referencing skills that can be used on the larger assignment (Part B) below.

The pathogen assignment (12%) to be handed in on August 7th. This also should include up to date primary research and address a discussion - again not simply a brief description of references – tie them in to address a story or topic with pro and con aspects.  ABSOLUTELY NO EXTENSION FOR ANY REASON.

Research on a Pathogenic agent. You will choose one of the pathogens listed on Moodle (and accompanying excel sheet). This assignment will be done as groups of two. Your mark will be shared (same mark for each person) however indicate who worked on what part of the assignment in case there are questions of plagiarism.

The assignment cannot be longer than 4 pages (font 11 or 12; 1.5 or double spaced) not including pictures or your reference page. The subtopics for your assignment are listed below. You choose how much space you want to devote to each subtopic – different pathogens will have more information/interest in some areas and not in others. You can also add other subtopics that you find interesting and relevant. The focus is not identical for every pathogen. Remember – there will be contrasting information – I expect to see this addressed in your report.

Part A:

ü  The Applelbaum paper listed on your Moodle site (as Applebaum paper!) discusses the appearance and prevalence of VRSA. The Applelbaum article discusses only a few incidences of VRSA infections – but this paper was written in 2006. Use your research skills to find and describe new information on the prevalence and treatment of VRSA infections today.

ü  Babies delivered by Cesarean methods or those who were exposed to antibiotics in the womb may be more prone to diseases like Asthma and diabetes. Why? Remember – explore the molecular basis! Is this statement an uncontested fact?


Part B: Choose a pathogen and use the following as a guide to write your report.

ü  Molecular mechanism of Infection and level of virulence.

ü  Type and symptoms of disease(s) caused by the pathogen

ü  Relation to other members of the genus

ü  Is the pathogen classified as the same level in other countries?

ü  Most common environments. (Hospital? Community? Geography?)

ü  Description of any associated Epidemics, pandemics

ü  Spread and prevention

ü  Treatments and their molecular mechanisms. How likely would you be infected while working on patients as a Health Care worker?

ü  Are there current Clinical or Pre-Clinical trials currently being conducted that are testing therapies against your pathogen?

ü  Incidence and mechanism of Resistance. Are there any strategies to overcome the resistant species?

ü  Other topics of interest


The maximum number of groups choosing one particular pathogen = 3. Once 3 groups have chosen a particular pathogen, that topic will be closed. Remember – only one person per group sign up online! Your preliminary report will include all people in the group. Indicate who signed up online. This assignment is worth 15% (3% Part A + 12% Part B) of your final grade.

Good Luck! And enjoy doing this research!!


Institutional Affiliation
Course Code/Title
Clostridium Botulinum
* Molecular mechanism of Infection and level of virulence.
Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) and other Clostridium species secrete one of the deadliest and extremely potent botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) that acts on soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment receptors (SNAREs) located in the neuronal cells to cause a food-borne illness known as botulism (Binz, Sikora & Mahrhold 665). Binz et al (666) identify the toxins to comprise of a tetanus neurotoxin and other seven distinct BTs. Mackle, Halcomb, and Parr (297) implicate serotype A, B, or E as culprits of human botulism while Woudstra et al (3120) note that botulism is caused by BoNT of subtypes A to G. BoNT typically binds to the cell surface receptors and the receptor-BoNT complex is translocated into an intracellular vesicle via receptor-mediated endocytosis. The proteolytic cleavage of SNAREs in the cytosol, which participates in neuroexoytosis, results in the inhibition of acetylcholine release at the synapse.

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