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Research paper for Anthropology on Language (Research Paper Sample)


Research paper on Language
1. Research the subject of human origins from a paleoanthropological perspective. You should compare & contrast one or two theories about major transitions, or different adaptations, in human evolution. Examples: l) One mystery is why Neanderthals began burying their dead. 2) Another topic could be, why did Australopithecines (or others) reach a “dead end”? 3) Alternatively, you could discuss tropical habitats & adaptive strategies vs. Ice Age changes. 4) Which tools had the biggest impact? 5) Will tools & technology be our undoing? Discuss some particular behavioral adaptations & their significance. 
For this topic, you’ll need (required): a) at least one book b) an article from a journal or magazine such as Discover or Scientific American c) two + fully-referenced websites. *
* I have asked for references above, in each option. Each should be referenced in your text. The recitation of library data should not take up more than one page of your paper. 
Please note: The most important requirement for this paper is that it is written IN YOUR OWN WORDS. 
That means, you may quote short excerpts & data (example: 20% of the primates were found to be infected with...) but write in your own words. If I want an encyclopedia article or book review, I already have a huge array of options from which to choose. The purpose of YOUR paper is not to dazzle the reader with factoids, but to demonstrate your analytical & critical thinking about the important subject / topic on which you have chosen to write. 
At the minimum, the entire second half of your paper should be your analysis & conclusions about your chosen topic.

The Neanderthals
Human evolution has been one of the most intriguing subjects that have been studied in history. Much like the thoughts of the afterlife, everyone have the nagging thought and a quest to understand where they came from. It is for this reason that several theories have been fronted to try and explain the origin of man. The theory of evolution also forms one of the most intriguing explanation for the origin of man. Relative to the various findings that have been discovered across the world, there is quite a significant amount of information that exists explaining the chain of events that took place millions of years ago. It is these events that shaped the evolutionary path for mankind along with the rest of the organisms that grace the world today as well as those that are long extinct. One part of the human evolution is language and it involves the Neanderthals, which form a significant part of the evolutionary history for mankind. The Neanderthals lived in complex societies of small groups and showed some very advanced skills. The anatomical arrangement of their throats in recent research indicates their ability to command speech. From the research the Hyoid bone was discovered from the Neanderthals' remains. This bone which assumes a semicircular shape and is held in place by the larynx, tongue, face and throat muscles; is responsible for the ability to swallow, cough and gag among other elements of the throat (Dediu and Levinson). Their name comes from the place that their remains were found, referred to as Neanderthals. They are believed to have existed roughly 600,000 years ago (Finlayson).
The first remains of the Neanderthals were discovered in the year 1820s and since then there have been quite a number of discoveries in Europe. The most detailed dating of the Neanderthals that has been completed in the recent past was carried out by Prof Thomas Higham from the oxford university in 2014 (Higham et al.). Using the tools discovered, Higham used the modern and sophisticated technology to elaborate on the idea that the Neanderthals may have become extinct in Europe some roughly 40000 years ago. This is a period that marks the start of the cold weather experienced in Europe (Higham et al.).
Much of the evidence indicate that the Neanderthals used stone and bones tools for their daily chores, which indicates that they were quite advanced. They are also said to have been much larger than the current Homo sapiens, relative to the fact that they lived in higher altitudes. Their bigger body structures also indicated that they had a much bigger cranial capacity than the modern man. They are closest relatives to the human race, given that they also had some similarities to humans, relative to the fact that they had angled cheek bones, an enlarged middle part of their face, they could also humidify their dry air through their large nose (Finlayson). Studies show that, the Neanderthals had powerful fingers on their hands, which were attached to long arms and high shoulder blades. As such, they are thought to have had the ability to climb on trees.
Their long limbs, a flexible lumbar spine and their flat feet also suggest that they could stand on their two feet and more importantly had the ability to walk for long distances. As the discovered tools indicate, the Neanderthals were quite intelligent as other than the tools which were sophisticated, they also made and wore cloths. They had mastered the art and science of hunting large animals, alongside planting for food (Lieberman). They had also developed specific skills to make ornaments. The Neanderthals lived in the glacial period and much of the evidence has been quite difficult to find. Their existence is filled with a lot gaps and the debates that they elicit are quite interestin...
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