Presidential Regimes Were More Affected By Arab (Research Paper Sample)
Research paper, double space, 30 sources, 6000words.
How to understand the different impacts of the 2011 uprisings on Arab monarchies and presidential regimes? In other words, why arabic presidential regimes were more affected by Arab uprising than arabic monarchies?
The paper should have:
1. A research question
2. The Literature Review of the Current Hypotheses (Hypothesis = a statement predicting the relationship between variables)
a.Survey previous hypotheses and explanations and predictions.
b. Highlight important or crucial cases that remain unexplained.
c. Identify contradictions or puzzles in the current theories.
d. Highlight the weaknesses of the previous theories.
e. Boldly challenge the conventional wisdom.
f. Identify the cases most commonly used to test the current theories
3. List the Current Hypotheses (predictions and explanation)
Provide predictions (what will happen under what circumstances) and explanation (what mechanically causes it to happen).
4. Propose Improved Alternative Hypotheses
5. The identification of variables, and their operationalization
6. The Test design
Competing explanations: Hypotheses must either be falsified or put into competition with one another to see which provides the best predictions and/or explanation.
We are trying to establish correlation (which is not causation).
The Case Selection (the data).
7. The case selection: Derive easy and hard cases (hard case is the most likely case for the original explanation).
8. Evaluation of findings and policy prescription
Evaluate predictive and explanatory power of resulting test and recommend subsequent research.
Report results and translate into actionable policy recommendations.
Why do revolutions lead to war?
Revolution is a term used to refer a movement that focuses on overthrowing an old regime in order to initiate radical changes within a society (Noueihed and Alex, 2011:12). Revolutions have become synonymous with the different radical movement that overcomes the past. Many have come to believe that modernity can only be achievable through violence that ensures total transformation (Kamrava, 2016:10). According to the ideas of Marxist Communism, a revolution was a necessity if a society was to move from one historical stage to the next (Lenin and Todd, 2015:10). Inspiration drawn from the Russian Revolution in 1917 under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin led to most of the revolutionary violence in the 20th century (Wade, 2017:11). Marxist ideas focus on revolution as a necessary stage in the evolution of societies. The Russian Revolution provided revolutionary movements around the world with a model for socio-economic and political transformation. The solutions that the USSR applied to deal with the dilemmas of their own country were used as a source of inspiration by many nations to overthrow colonial governments (Noueihed and Alex, 2011). The 1917 Revolution also inspired nationalist revolutionaries such as Sun Yat-sen in China and the Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam (Neitzel, 2018:2). The Iranian Revolution in the late 20th century was somewhat different from the Russian Revolution in that the former did not adopt communism, but rather saw a radical transformation of the state and society from Western values to Islamic values. These are just a few examples of revolutionary change in modern times.
The research question this paper asks is the following: Why do some revolutions lead to war? The paper presents a new model for why some revolutions lead to war, and it tests this model on the case study of Egypt following the Arab Spring.
In this section, the discussion focuses on the current hypothesis as explained by different authors on revolutions and their connection to wars (Ozan, 2012:2; Kirkpatrick et al., 2011:1; Springborg, 2011:427). There are manifold conditions that were set by the Arab spring both long-term and short-term. In the previous hypothesis, many possibilities determine the extent of a revolutionary movement (The Economist, 2011:1). In this case, the vulnerability of Arab regimes largely contributed to the status of instability that caused wars to varying capacities during the Arab spring. These include democracy, the status of the youth population, and status of economy and freedom of media. The level of education has a prime connection to other factors since its influence to political change is imminent.
Revolution and War
Walt (1996:22) relates revolutions and war on the platform of the theory of the “Balance of Threat” amongst different States. According to Walt (1996:30), the balance that exists in power does not provide the only variable considered by countries in their assessment of potential rivals. There are other factors of consideration such as geographical proximity, offensive-defensive balance as well as geographical proximity. Walt underlies the four factors that influence a State’s reaction over the threat from neighbors as well as other powers. According to Walt (1996:4), revolution refers to “the art of destruction exercised over a present regime by its citizens with the intention of replacement with a new political order” (Walt, 1996:4). However, such a definition does not include the possibility of coup’s d’йtat as well as other changes within the governing elite. Elaborately, the definition implies creation and construction of new political structures as means...
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