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Essay Available:
11 pages/≈3025 words
7 Sources
Religion & Theology
Research Paper
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Islam (Research Paper Sample)

There are two topics to choose from: 1) Explain the growth of Islamophobia in Europe since the 1970s. Choose two countries and explore xenophobia and Islamophobia. 2) Discuss the identity of European Muslims in Europe. Choose two countries or regions and explain the interaction between Muslim self-representation, European nationalisms, and Islam. Please choose one of these topics. I NEED a minimum of 7 academic sources. Thesis and Argumentations are a must. source..

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The paper generally focuses on the growth of Islamophobia in Europe since the 1970`s and also explores Xenophobia and Islamophobia in France and Germany and the existing arguments on the two concepts by various critics.
The word Europe alone brings out a variety of negative and positive connotations. It has not only been seen as geographic but also as a normative power. It is the foundation of diverse philosophies and political views, concepts and ideas which in the current centuries have helped change and shape the world. It is the continent in which the revolution of French arose, demanding for equality, liberty and fraternity and also was the source of the modern day democracy yet it was the starting point for two world wars. It is in Europe where fascism and Nazism were born and also it`s in this continent where communism and capitalism emerged from. The end of cold war and the emerging victory of the capitalism system in the west brought to an end the frightening enemy -communism. Now the European Nation desperately needed a new enemy and was easily found. The rising up of the Islamic Revolution in Iran from 1979 and the regime of Islamist Taliban in Afghanistan posed as a new opponent to the European Union. Then came the September11 attacks, though this was not the first terrorist attack on planet earth, it was indeed the biggest sudden attack against the United States of America which made President Bush to establish a fight against terrorism and the target group was the Muslims. This led to the rise of Islamophobia which basically means the fear of Muslims and Islam and Xenophobia which highlights the fear of foreigners, immigrants and strangers among the European Citizens. For over the past five years, majority of the European governments have enacted prohibition or any laws regulating the putting on of veils by Muslim women in public places and schools.Not only did the European marginalize Islam`s, but they also extended their discrimination against those races that were different from them such as indigenous Native Americans, to Jews, to Blacks, to Asians, to Hispanics among others.[ZuhaL Yesilyurt gu¨ NDU¨ Z, "The European Union at 50-Xenophobia, Islamophobia and the rise of the Radica Right, "Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs30 (March 2010):35.] [Rachel.B.Jones,;Intolerable Intolerance: Toxic Xenophobia and Pedagogy of Resistance;, The High School Journal(2011): 34-45]
Exploring xenophobia and Islam phobia in France
France became among the first European countries to introduce a ban on covering faces with veils in all the public places in spring of 2011 and the commencing of April 2011 and those who did not adhere to the regulations were detained by police. This led to the expression of outrage by majority of the people in France and other international communities as they viewed this law as discriminator...
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