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The paper needs to be revised according to the instructions, the revision should be major. The Outline is as follows: 5-6 pages typed, double-spaced, circa 1500 words; 12 point font, with 1 inch margins, proper footnoting (end-notes), bibliography in University of Chicago Manual of Style. 1. Topic – The“Dark” Ages (in the context of the early middle ages; 476 – 1000). Was the social, political, and economic climate of this epach any darker than modern times? The paper must compare modern times (focusing on the 20th century – Hitler, WW2, Nuclear War, Cold War, and the 21st Century Terrorism) to the era of the dark ages (between 476 – 1000) and contrast the social, economic and political climates of these two epochs to answer the question: What made the “Dark Ages” (between 476 – 1000) any “darker” than modern ages? By Dark Ages it must stay contained within the particular timeframe of the fall of the Roman Empire (476) and about 1000 AD) Don't discuss the later or “higher” middle ages after about 1000 AD as this was a different era. A comparison will be made along these domains of historical reference (political, social, economic ) with those events in the 20th century – an epoch of “supposed advancement “in mankind that was actually marked by abhorrent events perhaps much darker than the period of 476-1000 often called the Dark Ages. The questions to explore is “How far have we really came since the Dark Ages”. “Were they really much “darker” than modern times?” “In terms of the relative decline/advancement of the human race how better off were we 1000 years after these when we wook at the 20th and 21st centuries?” “Have we come a long way?” Has there been advancements in human “flourishing” and “enlightenment”? Is the human race doomed to a perpetual history marked by mankinds ascent in a moral and ethical maturity/knowledge only to be followed by an inevitable and rapid degeneration into a base state of barbarity? What brings about this barbarity? Is it the Economic conditions? Religious strife? Politics? Social unrest? Or a combination of all these things… The focus of this parper must be the Dark Ages. Describe the political, economic and social climate of this epoch. What made it so dark? What did it look like along these domains? Then the papers conclusion should draw in some reference to events of the 20th century. An attempt will be made to illustrate if mankind has in fact progressed though the renaissance into a new“brighter era” of human flourishing? If we really were “enlightened” or if the 20thcentury is proof that mankind has not “grown up” in the 1000 or so years since the “Dark Ages” ***Important note: IT IS IMPERTIVE That at least 3 Primary sources are required. Scholarly Articles are NOT considered primary sources. However, If you find a scholarly artical that contains a reference to a primary source this can be used as a primary source. To illustrate only the following are eligible to be considered to count as 1 of the 3 required Primary Sources - historical sites, castles, battlefields, artifacts, ruins or buildings, transcribed original documents, and anything directly from the times being written about. These need to be from the epoch being discussed and they must be analyzed in the paper to describe what's being discussed. These sources can be from the internet if reputable and properly cited using Chicago format and/or the library. You don't have to visit Europe to get these but do need to use 3 or more primary sources as mentioned above. The Dark Ages is period is characterized by a relative scarcity of historical and other written records at least for some areas of Europe, rendering it obscure to historians. It may be difficult to find Primary Sources for this era. Please be advised. Beside 3 or more Primary Sources the paper must use at least 3 Secondary sources which can be books, scholarly articles, etc. Possible Secondary Sources: Wells, Peter S. (2008-07-14). Barbarians to Angels: The Dark Ages Reconsidered. W. W. Norton. López, Robert Sabatino (1959). The Tenth Century: How Dark the Dark Ages?. Rinehart. Herbermann, Charles G. "The Myths of the 'Dark' Ages,"The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XIII, 1888. Magevney, Eugene. "Christian Education in the 'Dark Ages'," The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Vol. XXIII, January/October 1898 source..
EARLY DARK AGES (FALL OF ROMAN EMPIRE IN 476 - 1000 AD) COMPARED TO MODERN TIMES (20TH C. - 21ST C) Name: Course: Professor Name: (June, 13, 2013) Early Dark Ages (fall of Roman Empire in 476 - 1000 AD) compared to modern times (20th c. - 21st c) So how dark were the Dark Ages (c. 400AD - c. AD100)? This is one question that has occupied many discourses of historians for long. There are those who would want to think that the Dark Ages were not that dark, on the other hand there are those who have sustained that those ages were just dark. The term "Dark Ages" is applied to refer to this historical period because it was thought that that time was without some documented history and there are very few archeological finds that can be attributed to those ages. The term "dark" is hence used to describe those days because of lack of knowledge about those ages just like the term was used to describe Africa as the "dark continent" at the time. However, with some significant discovery of some materials written during that period, there is some new light that illuminates that darkness, and now more than ever, many historians are careful when refereeing to those days as the "Dark Ages;.[Ingram, James (Rev). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle London: Everyman Press, 1823 (originally written approx A.D 890)] The term "Dark Ages" is seen by many today as a hangover from an era that is less enlightened. The Anglo-Saxon and the Venerable Bead actually did write something about that era. One can safely say that that period of humanity that is described as the "Dark Ages" of between 475 AD and 1000 AD is indeed the most maligned of all. The term "dark ages" is however now almost as ancient as that period itself. The term was coined by Italian Scholar Petrarch as a lamentation on the decline of the Latin literature. The term would later be taken up by the protestant reformers in the 16th century, and later by the members of the "Enlightenment" of the 18th century as was used as a derogatory term bearing even broader implications since they say their own "enlightenment" as being absent from the earlier period.[Bishop, Morris. The Middle Ages Chicago, IL: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2001.] [Hoyt, Robert S. Life and Thought in the Middle Ages Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota, 1967.] But were the "dark ages" as dark? Precisely not. If anything, this was an era of great progress and yes, light. This was a period that classical education began. Universities were born then, and the models that were developed in that classical education are still in use today in some schools. The universities of the Early Middle Age taught law, medicine, arts and theology which is the study of religion. Besides this classical structure that was based on the Ancient Greek history, these medieval universities were also extensively influenced by the Islamic education which was proliferating then. Universities of the early days exclusively admitted m...
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