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Presidential Leadership Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)


Please follow instructions and grading rubric very thoroughly and carefully. Make sure this assignment has an Introduction, Body, and Conclusion (use proper formatting and headings). Must be formatted in (strict) current Turabian guidelines and include a title and a bibliography page. Make sure to include (correct) page numbers for references. NO PLAGIARISM as I will check if it is OR not. DO NOT COPY INFORMATION THAT YOU FIND ONLINE; THOSE ARE NOT APPROPRIATE (as I will check if the presidential leadership paper is copy from other sources or not). THIS MUST BE AN ORIGINAL, CUSTOM written research paper over 3 U.S. presidents who have had a substantial impact on U.S. Foreign Policy toward the Middle East. Remember, this is a graduate (Master’s) level assignment, so make sure that it is – Graduate level academic writing on this assignment is very important. AGAIN, PLEASE REVIEW THE UPLOADED FILES THAT IS FULL OF INSTRUCTIONS AND THE GRADING RUBRIC.


Presidential leadership
The U.S foreign policy in the Middle East has evolved with the changing power relations, and different presidents have chosen those policy initiatives that support their vision of the world. The case for democracy in the region has been one of the most contentious, while there are diverse players in the oil rich region. Recently, U.S intervention in the region has also been met with resistance from opponents who viewed such actions as unnecessary interference in internal affairs of other countries. Foreign policy makers have to balance the quest for democracy while also looking into ways to stem terrorism and fundamentalism. The Israeli- Palestinian conflict remains one of the challenges in U.S foreign policy given the unequivocal support for the Israelis from different American administrations, but with no end in sight of hostility between the Arabs and Israeli.
Thesis statement: President Clinton and Obama have focused on maintaining stability in the Middle East and alliance-building, while Bush favored intervention to project America’s power and encourage democracy.
Bill Clinton
In the Clinton administration realism influenced foreign policy in the Middle East especially the use of containment and deterrence. Bill Clinton focused more on maintaining stability in the Middle East rather than democratizing the region compared to George Bush. For instance, under Clinton, Arafat the then leader of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) visited the U.S. many times, and the administration sought to work with a leader who united the Palestinians rather than risk the uncertainties and instability of forcing a regime change. There was still no progress on the Israel-Palestine dispute despite efforts to appease Arafat based on the belief that he would agree a reasonable settlement with the Israelis.
President Clinton faced the challenge of crafting a coherent foreign policy given that the neoconservatives had wielded so much power during Reagan’s administration and George H Bush’s administration. Clinton embraced a more rationalist approach compared to the previous regime focusing on negotiation while respecting the actions of American alliance partners in the Middle East from Israel to Iraq. However, Clinton’s policies were met with stiff opposition from the new-cons who still favored strong military action when necessary rather than diplomacy to achieve the U.S best interests in the Middle East. Clinton neocon critics also asserted that he had failed to project America’s global leadership or actively influence international geopolitics.
In the 1990’s ,the neoconservatives and American Right forged alliances in opposition to the Clinton administration opposing his domestic and foreign policies. Their aims and objections were articulated to ‘reassert’ America as the sole superpower to demonstrate their perceptions on the role of the U.S in shaping the world. To the neoconservatives the US had the moral authority to police the world to ensure that the international environment was friendly to America’s principles and security. However, Clinton never relented and followed a path of non interference when dealing authoritarian Middle East regimes, rather than inducting values in foreign policy formulations.
George W. Bush
President Bush was faced with a different set of problems following the 9/11 attacks and with the support of neoconservatives there was drive for the president to be more hawkish. As such, support for pre- emptive force in Iraq became one of his early policies that defined his administration . This was a departure from the use of containment and deterrence that was practical during the Cold War. Since the U.S. faced a different enemy an...
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