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Literature Review on the Evolution of Psychopathy (Research Paper Sample)


Complete a Literature Review on the Evolution of Psychopathy. 
Answering the questions: 
(1)How does the MAOA-L Gene Play A Role in The Development of Psychopathy.
(2)Is Psychopathy A Disorder or an Adaption.
(3)Is Psychopathy increasing, decreasing, or holding steady within the world population and what could be the cause. 
Paper should have a title page, abstract, lit. review, and future consideration section.


Evolution of Psycopathy
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Evolution of Psychopathy
Traditionally, traits such as selfishness, deceit, lack of empathy, egocentricity and manipulativeness used to play a crucial role in the conceptualization of psychopathy. In the past three decades, psychopathy has been redefined by the continuous violations of social norms such as stealing, inconsistent work behavior, lying and truancy. Due to this, psychopathy is considered as a personality disorder that is being characterized by strong antisocial traits. Its defining features are risk factors that influence violent behaviors. Researchers and neuroscientists have suggested that both orbitofrontal neuropsychological performance and genetic factors are developmental factors for psychopathy.
Psychopathy is a personality disorder that is being characterized by behavioral, interpersonal and lifestyle traits such as lack of empathy and remorse, manipulation, glibness, grandiosity, shallow effect, irresponsible lifestyle and persistent violations of the social norms. The development and implementation of Hare's psychopathy checklist-revised had improved the evaluation of this disorder. From PCL-R assessment, interpersonal and personality traits such as lying, lack of remorse and empathy, and manipulation are related to psychopathy. These traits are grouped in Factor 1 (F1). Antisocial traits such as impulsivity, irresponsibility and criminal behavior belong to Factor 2 (F2) (Hare, & Neumann, 2008).
Neuroscientists have established a connection between psychopathy and violent behaviors. They have suggested that the deficiency of violence inhibitors such as emotional ties, self-justifications, fear to punishments, and empathy facilitates the violent behaviors that are witnessed in psychopaths. Also, there is a proposition that psychopathy in adolescents may lead to the development of antisocial behaviors and violation of the law in adulthood.
However, there is a suggestion that the etiology of psychopathy contains an important biological component. This is due to recent studies that have demonstrated that genetic factors are contribute to the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) that is linked to psychopathy. Genetic factors are believed to account for more than 50% of ASPD. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that some of the contributing factors for the development of psychopathy characteristics such cruelty, unemotional traits; detachment and manipulation in men are genetic factors (Furguson, 2010).
A reason why genes have been linked to psychopathy is the modulation of serotonin (5HT) on violent behaviors. This suggests that there is a relationship between serotonin and violent behaviors in which more violent individuals possess more psychopathic characteristics (Dolan, Anderson, & Deakin, 2001).
Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) is one of the genes that have been linked to psychopathy. MAOA is an enzyme that catalyzes monoamines in the brain and is contains strands of 5HT. It is located in X chromosome (Xp 11.4-Xp 11.3) (Shih, Chen, & Ridd, 1999). The polymorphism repetitions (MAOA-uVNTR) have been described. MAOA-uVNTR is a repetition of more than 30 base sequences in the promoter region that affects the transcription in vitro. Carriers of 3.5-4 repetitions (alleles MAOAH) has higher expressions of the enzymes while lower expressions are present in carriers 2, 3, 5 repetitions (alleles MAOAL) (Sabol, Hu, & Hamer, 1998).
Molecular studies follow the same suggestion of linking ASPD and psychopathy, especially MAOAL allele is related to certain traits of psychopathy such as ASPD, impulsivity, and violence. In their study, Fowler and his colleagues established that MAOAL allele and psychopathy traits are associated.
A recent study by Romero-Rebollar et...
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