What Causes Infanticide in India Become an “Epidemic” (Research Paper Sample)
What causes infanticide in India become an “epidemic.”
Infanticide is the intentional act of killing a newborn. According to Dube, Dube, and Bhatnagar (2016), postcolonial India had witnessed selective killings of female fetuses despite increasing concerns from Indian women-led campaigns against the act. India is a patriarchal community with the number of males exceeding that of females. Infanticide increased in the 20th century as technological innovations such as ultrasound were introduced in India in the 1970s to determine the sex of unborn babies (Caldwell & Caldwell, 2005). Reviews show that politics and the social context influenced the nature of the population and actions were undertaken in the modern-day India (Brown, 1984; Williams, 2014). The aim of this paper is to propose a research on what causes infanticide in India to become an epidemic.
During the emergency period that began on June 1975 to March 1977, India experienced a political power that was focused on poverty eradication in the country. Nevertheless, the politicians advocated for family planning programs that saw many people become sterilized to facilitate economic development (Williams, 2014). During this period, political power, a sex determination test was introduced in the country as a means of identifying defects in a sample population. Subsequently, it offered an opportunity for sex-selective abortions (Dube et al., 2016). From this perspective, females who experience sex determination tests and then perform abortions on knowing the sex of the baby contribute to the gender inequality already presented by the patriarchy. Moreover, women do not act independently, but are sometimes influenced by the prevailing policies such as those employed during the emergency. Additionally, they are victims of a dominant social ideology that has a higher preference for male children. According to Dube et al. (2016), the increase of killing of female fetuses can be associated with the slighting and discriminatory practices, including the uneven sharing of food that leads to nutritional deficiencies. Also, there is inadequate access to health care, family resources, and basic survival requirements. The cultural setting has been identified as a virtually undetectable infanticide that continues to haunt the girl-child (Dube et al., 2016).
Dube et al. (2016) reviews that Indian women’s organizations were the first parties to condemn the use of modern reproductive technologies for feticide as well as discriminative breeding and raising of male fetuses. The Association for Women’ s Studies found that there are conflicting accounts on the mortality rates of fetuses suggesting that the crime exists but at undetectable rates. Furthermore, the India Women Welfare Foundations (2009) states that there has been little effect of the initiatives taken by the government and non-government organizations including the media to change the community perception about the females.
Although India is among the progressively developing nations in the 21st century, the India Women Welfare Foundations (2009) hint at that citizens are living with an illusion that they are at par with other developed nations. Arguably, despite the technological development, some of the innovations have been used to facilitate infanticide by allowing access to even the remote villages through motorcycles. Nevertheless, Williams (2014) notes that family planning is critical for the survival of the nation, but the adequate social change should be implemented to compact infanticide. Furthermore, for more than a decade, there has been legal provisions banning sex-selective abortions, yet the number of extermination of female fetuses’ remains high, suggesting that there is a need for change in the social and cultural activities that promote infanticide ( India Women Welfare Foundations, 2009).source..
What Causes Infanticide in India Become an â€œEpidemicâ€
What Causes Infanticide in India Become an â€œEpidemic
Infanticide is the intentional act of killing a newborn. According to Dube, Dube and Bhatnagar (2016), postcolonial India had witnessed selective killings of female fetuses despite increasing concerns from Indian women-led campaigns against the act. India is a patriarchal community with the number of males exceeding that of females. Infanticide increased in the 20th century as technological innovations such as ultrasound were introduced in India in the 1970s to determine the sex of unborn babies (Caldwell & Caldwell, 2005). Reviews show that politics and the social context influenced the nature of the population and actions were undertaken in the modern-day India (Brown, 1984; Williams, 2014). The aim of this paper is to investigate the causes of infanticide in India that have made it become an epidemic.
Politics and Infanticide Epidemic
During the emergency period that began on June 1975 to March 1977, India experienced a political power that was focused on poverty eradication in the country. During the 1971 election in India, the people of India had opted for change by electing Gandhi's government which had a very radical manifesto admired by the people. However, as Gandhi stepped in power, things changed; economic and political crises escalated leading to mass dissipation of Gandhi's administration (Williams, 2014). The economic situation was worsened by corruption by the government officials. Gandhi was experiencing mass opposition until July 1st, 1975 where, instead of giving in to the pressure, he came up with more intensified strategies that saw a shift in the state of emergency he had declared in had declared earlier. He claimed that he wanted to spur economic development through a 20-point economic plan which included so many things that aimed at poverty alleviation such as controlling prices of essential goods, tackling rural indebtedness and more importantly the national family planning program which saw a great intensification in the program.
The economic development plan was aimed at attacking poverty. However, as critically observed it turned into a bodily harm where family planning programs were overly exercised with numerous sterilizations of the people (Williams, 2014). In some states, it was noted that police were involved in coercing men to accept vasectomy. Gandhi assigned his cabinet staff quotas of the population to which they were expected to convince to undertake sterilizations. Those who were sterilized would be issued with certificates (Dube, Dube, & Hatnagar, 2016). These certificates were used as the measure of the cabinet achievements and rewarding for cabinet members who brought more certificates was promoted, allocated a better house and was given paid holidays. This motivated the government officials who further intensified the program under family planning.
In February 1976, Gandhi's son who held no position in government felt that the family planning was not elaborate enough and he decided to come up with a further five-point program which elaborated more measures for family planning (Caldwell & Caldwell, 2005). Consequently, family planning became more severe in what was termed as "personal extra-constitutional authority."
The policies that came in place to support the five-point program included cash incentives for those who accepted family planning and more targeted were the large families. The implementation of the policies was delegated to the state governments which saw more access to the families (Caldwell & Caldwell, 2005). The central government allowed state governments to draft and pass sterilization compulsory bills that could support the en...
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