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Psychology
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Research Paper
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Topic:

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder In Family Members of Homicide Victims (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

This is the Research Paper requirements
As the culmination of your research series, you will write a Research Paper that synthesizes the major points of your research. Your paper must focus on your selected topic and how the research relates the topic to grief, trauma, and the human stress response. Start with a general overview of trauma and/or grief in your introduction before going into your narrow topic for the body of the report. Your paper must relate your research findings to the major theories of counseling, and biblical perspectives on crisis counseling. The content of your research must be discussed in depth, discussing the main themes found in your research articles, field interview, readings, and how they align. In your conclusion, you must suggest how your findings could be used towards a future research study.
MAIN TEXT BOOK
Everly, G. S. (2015). Clinical guide to the treatment of the human stress response. New York, NY: Springer.
References
Schwarz, E. D., & Kowalski, J. M. (1991). Malignant Memories: PTSD in Children and Adults after a School Shooting. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 30(6), 936-944. doi:10.1097/00004583-199111000-00011
Olff, M., Langeland, W., & Gersons, B. P. (2005). The psychobiology of PTSD: coping with trauma. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(10), 974-982. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.04.009
Nader, K., Pynoos, R., Fairbanks, L., & Frederick, C. (1990). Childrens PTSD reactions one year after a sniper attack at their school. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(11), 1526-1530. doi:10.1176/ajp.147.11.1526
Asaro, M. R. (2009). Working With Adult Homicide Survivors, Part I: Impact and Sequelae of Murder. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 37(3), 95-101. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2001.tb00633.x
Asaro, M. R. (2001). Working With Adult Homicide Survivors, Part II: Helping Family Members Cope With Murder. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 37(4), 115-124. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6163.2001.tb00643.x
McCann, I. L., & Pearlman, L. A. (2010). Psychological trauma and the adult survivor: theory, therapy, and transformation. Milton Keynes: Lightning Source.
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=zvNTmfFvkXEC&oi=fnd&pg=PR9&dq=PTSD+adults+trauma+murdered+relations&ots=_TE9o9bwhQ&sig=C4q9iFGpwqKuhvdefZL4yOFdiP0#v=onepage&q&f=false
Psychiatric consequences of "ethnic cleansing": Clinical assessments and trauma testimonies of newly resettled Bosnian refugees
Weine, Stevan M; Becker, Daniel F; McGlashan, Thomas H; Laub, Dori; et al. The American Journal of Psychiatry; Washington 152.4 (Apr 1995): 536-42.
Jenkins, Esther. Psychiatric consequences of "ethnic cleansing": clinical assessments and trauma testimonies of newly resettled Bosnian refugees. (1995). American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(4), 536-542. doi:10.1176/ajp.152.4.536.
Breslau, N. (1991). Traumatic Events and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an Urban Population of Young Adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48(3), 216. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1991.01810270028003
Black, D., Harris-Hendriks, J., & Kaplan, T. (1993). Father Kills Mother: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Children. Bereavement Care, 12(1), 9-11. doi:10.1080/02682629308657304
Feldman, R., Vengrober, A., Eidelman-Rothman, M., & Zagoory-Sharon, O. (2013). Stress reactivity in war-exposed young children with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: Relations to maternal stress hormones, parenting, and child emotionality and regulation. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4pt1), 943-955. doi:10.1017/s0954579413000291
Merrill, G. S., Shumway, M., Alvidrez, J., & Boccellari, A. (2010). Outreach, Engagement, and Practical Assistance: Essential Aspects of PTSD Care for Urban Victims of Violent Crime. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 11(3), 144-156. doi:10.1177/1524838010374481
This is a short list of some of the articles and journals that displayed information pertinent to my topic of PTSD amongst survivors of violent crime to family members, or those relationally close to them. The articles are in order of importance. There will be more information as each article is analyzed in depth.
Some of the Research that must be included
PTSD in Survivors Closely Related to Homicide Victims and Unnatural Death
Research Questions
1. What is the frequency of PTSD among those closely related to homicide victims?
2. What is the main difference between PTSD among different relations, for instance is the duration and severity different between immediate family compared to distant relations?

3. What is the proposed course of treatment, first aid, and psychotherapy suggested for those related to homicide victims compared with other PTSD treatment plans?

With the following questions, I seek to examine the application of PTSD criteria to family members of those related to homicide victims, examine the frequency, duration of the symptoms of this specific application of PTSD, and the treatment suggested. This will take multiple forms of examining the different situations of unexpected death and relational distance. Comprehensive is not possible, but this examination may lead to further research in differentiating the treatment and counselling applied to PTSD symptoms based on distance of relations to victims of homicide.
During the interview with Debora Jones concerning Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) present in those who had a family member die unexpectedly through homicide, many themes were present, some consistent with research by the author, and many aspects not anticipated. There were not only the interesting surprises in the discussion, but also a biblical undertone, referring the author to spiritual themes though in a secular context. The context of Pueblo, Colorado, should be taken as the overall theme of context, for it would be unwise to apply the specific demographics to any city and cultural context.
The key themes covered in the interview with Debora Jones were the rate of PTSD in families of homicide victims and the recovery rate for those that sought crisis counsel at the Crisis Center in Pueblo. The rate of PTSD was not as expected, being 5% over the numbers given by Straub (year), and surprising due to the size of the population (200,000). Jones admitted it is harder to get an accurate number on the long-term PTSD due to the fact the Crisis Center is an acute crisis facility and related to short term traumatic events. Jones frequently referred to the thousands of persons that sought unhealthy coping mechanisms rather than seeking professional aid. Jones' team of eight professionals evaluate, treat, and give resources to hundreds, and although in the past few years have had a serious influx of homicide related cases, has yet to see one related to homicide this year. Many of the percentages were unknown, and the theme of being a presence in the moment of crisis was an important concern to Jones.
Surprising was the facility and the means of evaluation of those who came into the Crisis Center with acute symptoms of trauma. Externally the facility looks like a clinic, but internally there are places for the meditation and quieting of the mind that are
necessary when the mind is overwhelmed by trauma. The staff was very helpful and welcoming, less clinical and more relational, seeking to provide the feeling of safety. Jones also had the comforting aura of a nurturer and less of that sterile clinical professionalism. No professional courtesy was lacking, and the yes or no questions were often answered at length, qualifying each situational discussion with culture and gender issues. Entering the interview, the author had prepared for a hurried discussion based on policy, and was surprised to see a more personally involved clinic for acute stress, combining resources with a neutral zone to alleviate the onset of physical and psychological trauma. Even in the waiting room there was a couple sharing a sandwich provided by the clinicians, as they acclimated to the clinic and the staff for help during their stress.
After finishing with the ten questions the author had prepared, there were several questions that rose through conversation and were discussed. PTSD was the main subject of interest, but avenues of the developmental period between acute stress and the development of long-term lingering effects interested the author, especially the predictability of acute stress becoming PTSD. The Crisis Clinic had no interest in prognostication, but was also interested in the physiological and psychological predisposition or the situational predictors of more extreme onset of stress. Although many of the cases were generalized to protect the patient's identity, there were a few studies of family members who developed long term stressors and mental disturbance from not being able to properly grieve or distance themselves from the event of the death of a loved one by not seeing the body of the deceased. There was also a discussion of default assignment of PTSD treatment and long-term stress management training with many of the patients as a rule for those who could not manage returning to the clinic on a regular basis for counselling.
The information from the interview was compared and contrasted with the research in treatment plans, reduction of the stress related to the traumatic event, and the concern that is employed in the initial reception of those in crisis. Although many of the statistics with PTSD frequency were comparable within 5% (compared to Everly and Lating, 2013). The Crisis Center was contrasted in frequency of PTSD with much of the textbook material that focused on general PTSD frequency for major events such as the terrorist attacks on 9/11 and war trauma, while the PTSD is mostly related to gang violence and familial acts of homicide (Asaro, 2009). Material composed in the study of PTSD related to family members of homicide victims often has a genocide (Jenkins, 1995) or foreign element, which has limited the study of urban killings and PTSD studies, as foreign societies are subject to displacement and long-term studies inhibited by general refugee events.
The author will include some of the content of the frequency of PTSD in the final research project, as well as some of the suggested environmental treatment plans. The removal of the stressful environment in the Crisis Center's meditation room and caring/nurturing elements of treatment can all help with stress de-escalation. Getting to the heart of the person's acute stress is also most necessary in acute stress treatment, giving the patient a voice and dignity, more than another number and “patient” status, this is foundational to the way that the Crisis Center operated. Even the basic needs being met through a sandwich and a glass of water can change the atmosphere of those undergoing acute stress in the moment of crisis.
The Crisis Center is mainly a secular institution, licensed by the State, and focuses on the principles of psychologists that dismiss the importance of God in the lives of those suffering beyond an evolutionary archetype; however biblical principles can be gleaned from every interaction. First, there was the state of presence, a state of openness to listen to whatever the patient had to say without a predisposition to answer, a sitting in anticipation to feel in empathy (Job 2:12-13). Next, there was the grasping of the crisis, not a minimization as an axiom, to really understand what was going on that caused the stress, including an evaluation that gave a voice and language to describe the event through open ended questions (Mark 10:51). There was also the feeling that love and relationships are the highest of concerns along with the pursuit of equilibrium in the Crisis Center, remaining professional, but sacrificial in time and concern for those in crisis (1John 3:16).
References
Cisney, J. (Producer). (n.d.). Presentation: Peer Support and Accountability [Motion picture on Video lecture series]. United States: Kineo Media Group, LLC.
Everly, G. S. (2015). Clinical guide to the treatment of the human stress response. New York, NY: Springer.
Jenkins, Esther. Psychiatric consequences of "ethnic cleansing": clinical assessments and trauma testimonies of newly resettled Bosnian refugees. (1995). American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(4), 536-542. doi:10.1176/ajp.152.4.536.

source..
Content:


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Family Members of Homicide Victims
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Introduction
Recent research shows that the prevalence of trauma is higher than previously thought and the public health problem affects the mental wellbeing. As people are exposed to traumatic events in their lifetime they are at higher risk of suffering the post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Everly, 2015). At the same time, increasing rates of suicide rates in the military indicate that PTSD is a persistent problem (Kang & Bullman, 2009) as reported by (Everly, 2015). When PTSD was recognized as a distinct syndrome it was characterized by numbing, reexperiencing traumatic events and arousal like symptomatology (Schwarz, & Kowalski, 1991). While the earliest studies focused on children reaction of traumatic events, it is recognized that even adults suffer such reactions and may face difficulties coping. This paper focuses on the post traumatic stress disorder in family members of homicide victims.
Frequency of PTSD among closely related to homicide victims The burden of loss among those closely related to homicide victims is a health problem that needs more attention. There are relatives, friends, community members, neighbors and workmates who are affected and the people then are co-victims. The homicide victims receive the greatest attention in research and media, but homicide is also potentially traumatic for those left behind and in particular close family and friends. Homicide survivors may experience PTSD and other co-occurring symptoms as they may live in fear of recurrence, anxiety, feelings of guilt and negative beliefs about their environment and those around them. At the same time, the criminal justice system and media may infringe on their privacy on their lives further increasing the risk of stress that affects their mental well being.
Typically, murder is violent, sudden and at times preventable and the homicide survivors suffer health consequences and this is especially when they suffer trauma. In a study by Rheingold et al (2011) the authors reported that the homicide survivor reported a higher frequency of PTSD ranging from 7% to 12 % compared to the non victims at 3%. This includes those experiencing vehicular and criminal homicide, and this pattern was reported for adolescents who reported higher rates of depression when they lost their loved ones (Rheingold, et al., 2011). The frequency of traumatic loss is affected by the number of homicide victims and their relation to the homicide survivors, but there are research gaps on how the lived experiences of those affected explain the development of PTSD.
One of the challenges of determining the frequency of PTSD among homicide victims is that the treatment facilities tend to focus on short term treatment and acute crisis. At the same time, there are few studies that focus on a follow-up on people with long term PTSD. At the Crisis Center in Pueblo. It was surprising that the expected rate of PTSD was 5% in a population of 200,000. Additionally, with those mental health issues do not necessarily seek treatment and others rely on unhealthy coping mechanisms. When there is long-term risk, including frequency of traumatic loss is also associated with homicides this has mental health consequences for family members of the homicide victims.
The homicide survivors experience dif...

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