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Literature & Language
Research Paper
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The Afghan - Soviet War Started In December 1979 (Research Paper Sample)


This research paper should explain the origins of this war,unfolding of the hostilities,deliniate its outcome, and conclude with an assessment whether there could be peaceful solutin rather than a war.
* use a mix of hardcopy and online researche materials and cite them correctly
*besure to document all facts in academicly accepted manner
*besure to add concluding bibliography list of all sources
* project is actually 2500 words what this is what I can afford :)


The Afghan- Soviet war started in December 1979 and lasted until February 1989 when the last troops of the Russian 40th army were pulled from Afghanistan. The war led to the death of over 14000 Russian combat deaths and injured over 35000 others CITATION Rob01 \l 1033 (Grogin, 2001). The war also led to over 1.5 million Afghan civilian deaths with over 5 million refugees in the neighboring countries CITATION Jam03 \l 1033 (Millar, 2003). Hundreds of thousands of Afghans were internally displaced while over 4 million sought refuge in Pakistan and Iran CITATION Mūs02 \l 1033 (Jalālzaʾī, 2002). The war is said to be a result of the cold war that ensued after the second world war. The war ended when the Soviet Union began disintegrating, and public outcry on the effects of the war increased. It was an expensive war for the Russians that they lost and made no significant progress. The war left an indelible mark in history and long lasting effects that have changed the course of history forever. It had become a big expense for the Soviet Union which was trying to impose communism on Afghanistan. In this essay, a detailed account of the origin, unfolding activities, outcome and an in-depth evaluation of alternative means that could have been adopted to prevent the war are critically discussed.
Origins of the war
The origin of the Afghanistan-Russian war can be traced back to the of world war ii. After the world war ii, the Soviet Union and the United States locked horns in a cold war that lasted up to the fall of the Soviet Union. The United States and its allies in the cold war advocated for capitalism while the Soviet Union advocated for communism. Afghanistan, being a neighboring country to the Soviet Union was a Russian target, and they strategized on how to win the country to adopt communism. The Soviet Union funded the Afghanistan government and helped it complete various infrastructural facilities for its people before the war. The Russians wanted Afghanistan to become a friendly ally and a communist state before the invasion CITATION Ale14 \l 1033 (Salaiz, 2014).
In 1978, the people democratic party of Afghanistan took power through a coup in the Saur revolution and installed Muhammad Taraki as the president. The party focused on modernizing Afghanistan, and it initiated various changes that caused friction with its people especially in the rural areas where the citizens were deeply rooted in Islamic and traditional dogma. Rebellions started springing all over the country, and the government reacted by arresting and executing those who opposed their policies. The rebellions grew, and eventually, the government became very unstable, and it was ousted by the Hafiz Ullah Amin in 1979. The rebellions however continued under the new regime and on December 24, 1979, Russia leader Leonida Brezhnev deployed the 40th army to Afghanistan. The army marched to Kabul and captured Amin and killed him. The coup staged by Russians also installed loyalist Babrak Karmal to be the president. The Russian army captured Kabul, major highways, and towns and brought them under their control. Afghanistan took their arms to fight for their country against attack by the Russians, and the war broke. However, the Russians had the cities and major infrastructural facilities, but the country was not necessarily under Russian authority when they had the city since many rebels came from the countryside CITATION Kev17 \l 1033 (McLean, 2017).
Unfolding of the war
The Russian invasion of Afghanistan was declared unconstitutional by the UN and ordered the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Russians in Afghanistan. UN voted 104-18 for Russian withdrawal. Many nations were against the Russian attack of a friendly sovereign country. Ho...
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