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Literature & Language
Research Paper
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Hydraulic fracturing in the US (Research Paper Sample)

The first part of the paper is is the proposal. Proposal 10 % Pick an area of interest and narrow it to a researchable topic. Learners will prepare a Proposal in consultation with the Advisor and the Client if applicable. The Proposal (5-7 pages) must be signed off by the Learner and the Advisor before being submitted to the GRES Coordinator for review and approval. After the GRES Coordinator has approved the Proposal, the Learner can start working on the Ethical Review and to the project itself. The GRES Proposal briefly outlines: - background and introduction of the organization/topic - current situation/Literature Review (List of 8 to 12 Academic sources for literature review) - project purpose - project scope approach and methodology - project team and expectations - project schedule and milestone dates - anticipated outcomes and benefits - project deliverables Here are the questions that will serve as the basis for assessing the proposal: 1. 2% Clear Project Purpose 2. 3% Project will use topics learned during the program and clear methodology 3. 2% Clear and appropriate initial Literature Review 4. 1% Does the research relate to your own personal goals? 5. 2% Is the format correct in terms of the latest APA style guide? The paper topic The purpose of this paper is to analyze the subject of hydraulic fracturing in the United States. The paper will investigate how the process of hydraulic fracturing has allowed once uneconomical reserves to be produced economically. The paper will also look at the overall impact that is a result of the production of these reserves in the United States. I will focus on three core areas, 1. Environment 2. Politics 3. Media vs. the oil and gas industry. The paper will show the how the unconventional gas revolution is changing the US economy, its future energy security and the impact it is having directly and indirectly to its current energy suppliers. The paper will also look at the impact that the US energy industry is having aboard as well. The benefits of the paper is to enlighten the reader on the process of hydraulic fracturing while at the same highlighting the issues and benefits that is a direct result of the hydraulic fracturing process in the United States. It will show that the hydraulic fracturing process will allow the United States to become an energy export rather than a net importer. The next piece will be the 35-40 page paper after the proposal. Sorry forgot to mention this will be a social sciences / tech paper. I want to incorporate the media piece from previous paper and then add on the other topics so it allows you to have the paper 1/3 to 1/2 done. The interview pieces i will look after so just subject matter will be need. thanks as always. the second piece will be 30 days plus for completion once the proposal is in. source..
Hydraulic Fracturing in the U.S
Course title:
Hydraulic Fracturing in the U.S
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) along with horizontal drilling has transformed shales that were previously not productive into the biggest natural gas fields in the globe. In the United States, the process of hydraulic fracturing is used in 9 out of ten natural gas wells, where millions of gallons of chemicals, water and sand are pumped into the ground in order to break apart the rocks to release gas. Concerns has been raised by scientists that chemicals which are used to fracture rocks could create a threat not just underground, but also when the waste fluids are mishandled and spilled out on the surface (Yew, 2007).
Literature review
Valko & Economides (2005) stated that hydraulic fracturing refers to a process which can enhance the flow of gas or oil from a well. This procedure is typically carried out by pumping liquids down a well and into underground rock units under extremely high pressures that fracture the rock. Usually, the objective is to form a network of fractures that are interconnected, which will serve as pore spaces for the movement of natural gas and oil to the well bore. The first industrial use of the process of HF was in 1903 and prior to that year, the procedure was employed at the Mt. Airy quarry in North Carolina where it was extensively employed in separating blocks of granite from bedrock (Brady & Brown, 2007). Conversely, the initial application of HF in stimulating natural gas and oil wells in the United States took place in the 1940s at the Hugoton gas field in the state of Kansas. One thousand US gallons of gelled gasoline as well as sand obtained from Arkansas River was inserted into the gas-generating limestone formation located 730 m underground for the well treatment. The procedure was successful in increasing the rates of well production and the practice then spread rapidly. In 1949, a patent on this procedure was issued and an exclusive license awarded to the company that invented it – Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Company. This company then on March 17, 1979 carried out the first two commercial HF treatments in Archer County, Texas and Stephens County, Oklahoma. Today, the HF procedure is used worldwide each year in thousands of wells (Zoback, 2010).
According to Jaeger, Cook and Zimmerman (2007), massive or high-volume HF treatment was first used in the United States by a firm called Pan American Petroleum in 1968 to a well in Oklahoma’s Stephens County. Five hundred thousand pounds of proppant was injected into the rock formation. Geologists from the United States in the 1960s became more and more aware of large volumes of gas-saturated rocks whose permeability happened to be very low to economically recover the natural gas. The government of the United States tried out with the use of underground nuclear explosions to fracture the rock and allow the recovery of g...
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