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9 pages/≈2475 words
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History
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Research Paper
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How nuclear arms race intensify the Cold War History Research Paper (Research Paper Sample)

Instructions:

This research essay is required at least 6 primary and seconday sources which I will provide below, please use all 6 sources in the essay. Any futher sources you use please cite at the end of the essay please. I have attached the instruction below, please check.
Sources will be use:
1.https://www(dot)jstor(dot)org/stable/24914852?seq=1 (need to register for a free account)
2. https://www(dot)jstor(dot)org/stable/j.ctt1nq84p (need to regiaster for a free account)
3. https://www(dot)trumanlibrary(dot)gov/library/research-files/soviet-intentions-and-capabilities?documentid=NA&pagenumber=19
4.https://avalon(dot)law(dot)yale(dot)edu/20th_century/msc_cuba061.asp#b1
5.https://avalon(dot)law(dot)yale(dot)edu/20th_century/msc_cuba044.asp
6.https://digitalarchive(dot)wilsoncenter(dot)org/document/118803

 

Research Essay

 

 


The Research Essay will be a culmination of your work on a topic throughout the course. Beyond the sources that you utilized in your first two written assignments, you will need to conduct far more research on the topic in order to produce a strong and comprehensive paper.

 

 


Step 1: Research 

 

 


Conducting Research

-Consult a variety of different sources—books, monographs, articles, documents, newspapers, etc. The objective is to show me that you have done extensive research on the topic. Use articles in your essay as they tend to be shorter and more concise than books, and they are always available at the library either in paper or electronic versions.

-A good strategy is to get your hands on the most recent study (book or article) on the topic. Reviewing the footnotes or bibliography will give you a grasp not only of the most current scholarship on the topic but also an outline of its historiography.

-While reviewing materials, you should try to define the scope of your topic. The process of defining a topic involves research, thinking, and planning. Once you understand your topic, do further research, focusing on a particular approach or perspective.

-Continue doing research until you have a comprehensive understanding of the topic and you are satisfied with your evidence that can support your arguments.

-You should try to use both primary and secondary sources in your research. Primary sources are the documents or the direct evidence of a person or organization of the time period. They can take many forms—books, letters, newspapers, interviews, diaries, etc. A secondary source is one that interprets or comments on the original sources. One of the most effective ways to highlight the originality of your work is to use primary sources. Remember that the more primary sources you use, the more original your essay will be.

 

 


The Sources You Intend to Use 

 

 


-You should continue researching until you feel that you can answer the main questions about your topic satisfactorily, and can include a number of viewpoints. Writing for a university course, you are required to develop a scholarly research paper. It is almost always the case that the more research you do, the better your paper will be.

-You should consult at least 6 sources (outside of the course materials and those used in your first two written assignments) for your essay; this includes books and articles. Encyclopedias, general history books and many Internet sites, although resources, are not appropriate academic sources.

-Be very careful about the type of electronic and Internet sources that you are using. Distinguish between scholarly articles in electronic format and general Internet sites. Note: You are not allowed to use any Internet source without prior consent from your instructor. If you find an interesting website, get approval from your instructor before using it as part of your research. 

-Avoid relying on a single source for your analysis. If you find a book that best expresses your own beliefs, than acknowledge that and show why you disagree with other sources.

-All the cited sources must be alphabetized in a bibliography and submitted with your research essay.

 

 


History Resources @ Ryerson University Library (based on a handout created by Val Lem)

 

 


How to find books, videos and journals:

-from the Library homepage (www.ryerson.ca/library) select Catalogue

-search by title, author, subject or keyword

-if necessary, you can use "Advanced Search" to further limit the scope of your research by type of material, language, etc.

-note the call number and floor location of the material

 

 


How to find resources on Reserve for my course:

-from the Library homepage select Catalogue

-select Course Readings

-enter course code or instructor’s last name

-note call number and pick up item at Circulation/Reserve Desk on the 2nd floor

 

 


How to find journal articles:

-from the Library homepage select Articles and Indexes

-select Find an Index/Database by SUBJECT

-select HistoryPolitics or another listing that describes your topic

-read the database descriptions to determine an appropriate one to search

-if you are uncertain about electronic indexes, consult the Selected Bibliography

-combine your search terms with the term AND, e.g. Bay of Pigs AND Kennedy 

-review your search results and refine your strategy by using different search terms; use a variety of diverse keywords as you will get different results each time

-select the article, if it is in full text format (PDF or html).  If not, look for the link; this will prompt a popup menu and provide options to access the article.  Or, see number 5, below

 

 


How to access databases and journal articles from home:

-you need a valid Library Card in order to gain access to the Library’s databases and most electronic resources from off-campus

-from the Library homepage select Articles & Indexes

-select Access from home if you are having difficulties

 

 


How to find out if the Library has a specific journal title:

-from the Library homepage select Articles & Indexes

-select Find a JOURNAL by Title 

-enter the TITLE of the journal e.g.Intelligence and National Security

Do not enter the title of the journal article as you will get no results

 

 


How to get an article or a book that the Library doesn’t have:

-from the Library homepage select Interlibrary Loan 

-select Create a RACER Account, or, Login to RACER if you previously have set up your Racer account

-it will take a while (up to several weeks) to obtain certain materials so make sure to order your interlibrary materials early

 

 


How to find out if a journal is peer-reviewed or refereed:

Restrict your results to peer reviewed items only. If the database does not offer this feature (it’s usually a clickable box), search for the journal in Ulrichs:

-from the Library homepage select Articles & Indexes

-Find an Index/Databases by Title (A-Z)

-select Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory and search for the journal by title

-a small icon of a referee’s jersey indicates that it is refereed

 

 


How to get help from the Reference Desk:

-visit the Reference Desk on the 2nd floor of 350 Victoria Street

-call the Reference Desk at (416) 979-5031

-from the Library homepage click on Ask Us! and select  one of the contact options

 

 


How to get help from the Reference Desk when I’m off campus:

-from the Library homepage click on Ask Us!

-select one of the 4 contact options

-directly contact Val Lem (one of the reference librarians) at vlem@ryerson.ca who specializes in history

 

 


How to renew my books or check my library record (fines owing, materials currently on loan to me and when they are due):

-from the Library homepage select Check your file

-enter personal information in the boxes as requested

-if you have difficulty, call the Borrower Services Department at (416) 979-5005, option 2

-check this frequently to avoid paying high fines

 

 


Step 2: Writing your Research Essay

 

 


Creating a Thesis Statement: 

-A thesis is a broad, all-encompassing idea that defines the central argument of your essay. It links all the themes, arguments and issues of your analysis, and provides unity. Your thesis is the answer to the most significant question that you have asked about your topic. It is also one of the most difficult components of an essay so take time to develop it.

-You must state your thesis (main argument) concisely in one or two sentences. Try to be specific. Explain concisely what you think your argument will be. Avoid ambiguous terms, vague concepts and circuitous arguments. Make your thesis definite and to the point. It takes a lot of time and effort to refine your thesis to the point where every word counts and there are no unnecessary words or expressions.

-It helps to formulate a central question which arises in your mind after examining the main issues. Then, try to answer your question by stating a hypothesis or interpretation – in other words, your thesis.

 

 


Developing an Outline: 

-Create a detailed outline—a blueprint of the main ideas that you want to use in your essay. Such a step in the writing process is critical especially for longer research papers. An outline will help you create a structure within which you examine the materials you have collected. You have to present information in a clear, linear and logical manner. A detailed outline will certainly help you execute these steps successfully. Remember, the more detailed your outline will be, the easier it will be for you to write the actual essay.

-An outline will also help you organize information in a cohesive and comprehensive manner. It can help you deal with what might otherwise feel like an overwhelming amount of information. Consider the following questions: What will you examine first? What will be the main sections of your paper?

 

 


Structure

-You need to have an introduction (in which you introduce the general topic and your specific thesis), a number of central arguments and a strong conclusion (summarizing your main points). Be sure to spend time on a well-written introduction, which captures the reader’s attention (you can always use an interesting quotation to do this) and a conclusion, which will make an impact on the reader. It is also a good idea to outline the structure of your essay in the introduction so that the reader knows exactly where you are heading with your ideas. The easiest way to achieve this is to list all your arguments. This will create guidelines for the reader.

-Having this essential structure will enable you to remain focused and on track, preventing unnecessary digressions from your central argument. Think about using subheadings for different themes or time periods as they facilitate the flow of the essay, marking the beginnings and endings of sections. 

 

 


Style

-Although this is often seen as a matter of personal taste, some basics have to be kept in mind. Avoid excessive verbosity and wordiness; keep your sentences short and to the point. You do not need to use highly technical language to impress the reader. Really, your thoughts are more important and you should choose the most effective way of conveying them. At the same time, be careful not to use slang words.

-Avoid run-on sentences. A good rule-of-thumb to follow is that if the sentence is too long for you to read aloud and understand its entirety, it is probably too long for your essay.

-Inappropriate paragraphing can detract from your ability to express yourself to your reader. Your narrative must be divided into proper paragraphs. Avoid paragraphs that are too long, encompassing several arguments and running across many pages, or that are too short, constituting a sentence or two.

-Last but not least, you should proofread your work at least once in order to detect mistakes in grammar, spelling and style. Spelling mistakes, incorrect punctuation, or awkward sentence construction can hinder the flow of even the most brilliant ideas. Once you are finished with a draft, put it aside for a couple of days and then reread it for content and style. Get a friend or a family member to read over your work and give you some constructive feedback.

 

 


Analysis

-You are being graded not only on your knowledge of the facts but also your critical interpretation of them. In other words, the information and examples you cite in your essay should be accurate. Moreover, you should be able to interpret this information to formulate a central argument (as opposed to the regurgitation approach). It is not enough for you to simply list events chronologically or to describe them. You need to develop some sort of a central argument or interpretation about those events.

-A good way of checking the validity of the points you are making is to consider possible counter-arguments. Another popular method is to compare and contrast the different interpretations that you might have encountered in your research. How do various historians perceive a particular topic? What are the controversial aspects or issues of the topic? Is there agreement among scholars on a particular topic? Keep in mind that a simple chronological narrative will only reveal your ability to summarize.

-An original essay will attempt to provide an innovative approach to the topic. There are many different ways of constructing your analysis. For example, you can organize your arguments thematically or by periodizing the events and revealing how they have changed (or stayed the same) over time. There is no formula for putting together a cohesive analysis as it is a matter of personal choice in terms of what you want to include or exclude, what you feel is important or irrelevant.

 

 


Length and Presentation

-Your essay should be typed and double-spaced, written in 12-point size Times New Roman font.

-Leave one-inch margins on both sides of the page, as well as at the top and bottom of the page. Please do not play with the margins to increase (or decrease) the actual length of your essay.

-Your paper should contain a title page with your name, the course code, and the topic of your essay.

-Make sure to number your pages.

-The essay should be around 2500 words. Aim for 10-12 pages. A minimum length is 9 full pages of text (excluding the title page and bibliography); the absolute maximum is 13.

-You can include pictures, maps, charts or appendices, as an addition to, not a substitute for your text.

 

 


Citations

-Your essay must contain footnotes or endnotes. An essay without references will be failed. You need to show where you obtained information for your essay and thus how you used your research.

-Consult a stylistic handbook for a recognized citation style in the social sciences and humanities.

-Some people are uncomfortable with footnotes because they are not sure when to use them. You should footnote all direct quotations and statistical data. At the same time, avoid continuous over-quoting or long quotations. Stylistically, when a quotation is longer than four lines, it should be indented and single-spaced. If you refer to views expressed by authors other than yourself, you must also cite the sources in footnotes. This is very important—even when you are only paraphrasing someone else’s ideas, the information must be acknowledged.

-If you want to say something in your essay that does not quite fit and that disrupts the flow of your argument, you can always put it in a footnote.

-The best rule to follow is that when in doubt, footnote. Most good essays contain about four to six footnotes per page.

 

 


For further information, consult the following guidelines:

-Essay Format – Chicago Manual of Style (from Ryerson University):

http://www.ryerson.ca/writingcentre/students/handouts/handouts/chicago.pdf

-Citation Guide: Chicago/Turabian from the Simon Fraser University Library:

http://www.lib.sfu.ca/help/writing/chicago-turabian#footnotes

-Chicago Style Citation Guide from the Seattle Central Community College Library:

http://dept.sccd.ctc.edu/cclib/Research_Help/Citation_Style_Guides/chicago_pdf.asp

-The Chicago Manual of Style Online:

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

source..
Content:

Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Code/Title
Instructor
Date
How the Nuclear Arms Race Intensifies the Cold War
Introduction
The nuclear arms race represents one of the best examples that highlight how fear can fuel technological advancement. During the Cold War, there were rising tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The two countries maintained extremely different political and economic beliefs that further aggravated the divide between the superpowers. Ensuing and differing ideologies between the two predominant powers in the early 20th century that is the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) led to the development of the Cold War. The Soviet Union was led by a communist type of government where the government controlled ownership of property and wealth and education. Contrariwise, the United States practiced a capitalistic and free form of government with democratic elections and private businesses. The ideological differences between the two superpowers placed them in direct opposition to each other and as a result, there were competitions in various development areas such as the advancement of technology and the development of military weapons such as the nuclear bomb. In a letter addressed to Chairman Nikita Khrushchev from President John F. Kennedy on October 22, 1962, the Cuban Missile crisis represented one of the most severe hostilities between the Soviet Union and the United States and is one of the closest events to a nuclear catastrophe during the nuclear age (“Letter from President Kennedy to Chairman Khrushchev”). The American spy plane had discovered some missile sites in the Cuban republic that was only miles away from the United States. This discovery leads to major diplomatic confrontations between Khrushchev and President Kennedy. Later, President Kennedy was advised to strike the missile sites but hose to hold secret negotiations with Khrushchev leading to the removal of the Cuban missiles. This paper provides highlights on how the nuclear arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union was a corollary of the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Cold War.

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