Learning Theory: Cognitive Development Theory, Strengths Of The Theory (Research Paper Sample)
research papers on learning theory , at least six (7) references are expected , include the reference page .
This research paper meet the course objectives 1-3 listed below :
1. Distinguish between different theories of learning.
2. Critically evaluate each learning theory by examining positive and negative aspects associated with each theory.
3. Create assessments that are aligned with the content, content delivery, and the theoretical framework upon which the content delivery was based.
It is expected that the paper is complete with references listed on a Works Cited pagePapers are expected to be typed, double-spaced, 12-point font, APA style. To meet college level writing expectations, it is recommended that the student review APA style and format either from online resources or from obtaining as a resource the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th or current edition). There are several on-line guides and resources for APA writing and style such as www.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01 Other web-sites that offer information in both APA and MLA are http://citationmachine.net and the other is http://www.calvin.edu/library/knightcite. For the knight cite website you can also just type in www.knightcite.com and it will take you to the homepage.
Institute of Affiliation
Learning process entails a permanent change in the ideas of the mind of an individual which happens involuntarily or voluntarily. Experiences that can facilitate change in knowledge of behaviors are key facilitators of the learning process. Behavioral learning theories assume the internal changes and emphasize on external changes that can be observed while the cognitive theories focus on the internal activities of the mind. The two theories acknowledge the fact that reinforcement is a critical element in learning. Cultural contexts theories, on the other hand, are based on the way people relate in institutions, cultures and historical contexts (Philip, 2009). The paper gives the analysis of these theories together with their assessment in a learning context.
Cognitive development theory
Jean Piaget came up with the theory in 1896-1980. It entailed four distinct phases in children which include: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete and formal. The key concept of the theory came from Jean Piaget who was a psychologist together with a Swiss biologist who observed their children and the way they perceived the world. The theorists then initiated a four-phase model on the way the mind processes ideas. All children utilize this four-stage process and usually realized this in the same order. Sensorimotor phase ranges from the birth of a child to two years. Here, children develop the understanding of themselves and the reality, the way things work through association with the surroundings. The difference between the child and other objects is realized at this stage. Learning occurs through assimilation and accommodation in this stage. The next stage is the preoperational phase. The child starts to conceptualize ideas but requires more visible physical ideas. Through these features, the child is able to classify vital features of the objects. The third stage is the concrete operational stage which ranges between seven and eleven years. The accommodation level advances, the conceptualization level that builds logical structures that explain the child's experience expand too. Then it is followed by the formal operational stage that ranges from 11 to 15 years. Here, the cognition capacity is in its final form. Physical features of an object are not necessary for judgments to be reached at but rather a deductive reasoning. The child is able to think about particular ideas in a similar level to an adult (Freud, 2010).
Strengths of the theory
The theory is regarded as one of the most successful ones since it changed the perspective of people on the children and the way to study them. The research has therefore influenced many theorists and researches. They employ this theory as a center of reference. Furthermore, the theory encourages comprehensive education which focuses on understanding children. It, therefore, has facilitated a better understanding of the way children learn. The theory explains the way children develop their understanding in phases. The phases enable the parents and teachers to have a wider view on the children's development level hence, in an educational context, children will be able to learn and work at their own level (Illeris, 2004).
Weaknesses of the theory
The theory in most cases ignored the ability of the intellectual level of a child. The experiments used by Jean were difficult to conceptualize and grasp. Studies reveal that young children have the capacity to succeed on tasks that are simpler and which need the same set of approach. Furthermore, theory only focused one group; only children thus can only be compared to a specific group. The researcher failed to develop a theory after the level of adolescence. ...
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