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4 pages/≈1100 words
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Social Sciences
Reaction Paper
English (U.S.)
MS Word
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Stereotype Threat & Intellectual Test Performance Of African Americans (Reaction Paper Sample)


Sample Discussion Questions
1. Provide a general description (3-4 sentences) for the purpose of this paper.
2. What is the economic question that the authors are attempting to answer? Can you locate this speciÖcally in the text? Where? What subquestions are used to answer this main question? List these.
3. What contribution to the literature does this paper make?
4. What type of evidence does this paper provide in answering the economic question? Is this form of evidence consistent with that found in cited literature?
5. Is the evidence convincing? Here you want to consider how much evidence is presented, the extent to which proxies are used, whether the data are complete or restricted in any way, etc. What would additional evidence add to the story told by the authors?
6. When, if ever, do the authorís personal preferences masquerade as objective conclusions?
7. How open are the authors about their biases? What signiÖcant unacknowledged biases does a piece a work contain?
8. When new concepts, terms, or proofs are o§ered, how well does the author illustrate these with clarifying helpful examples?
9. What is the answer to the economic question? Can you locate this speciÖcally in the text? Where?
10. How far do the major conclusions or interpretations in the study clearly follow from earlier arguments and explanations? What is the discernible developmental áow to a text?
11. What was most confusing about the paper? Be speciÖc and, if possible, provide page numbers.
12. What was most clear about the paper? Be speciÖc and, if possible, provide page numbers. To get an A your paper must exhibit the following...
identify the salient arguments (reasons and claims) pro and con
thoughtfully analyze and evaluate major alternative points of view
draws warranted, judicious, non-fallacious supported conclusions.
justiÖes key results and procedures, explains assumptions and reasons

Students will compose a 4-5 page double-spaced (10pt font) critical response paper based on weekly class discussions. After each week, students are expected to comment or reáect on at least two arguments discussed in class. Students will need to clearly state both sides of the argument( points discussed in class and salient points that may not have been discussed in class). The student must state on which side of the argument he/she stands and which points ináuenced their opinion. Papers should include interesting, intriguing, problematic or troublesome points raised in the class discussion. There is a research component to the reáection paper. Be sure to involve the readings in the reáection. You can also reference and include news articles, personal experiences, YouTube links, social media comments, etc.
Keep in mind,reáectionpapersareNOTarticlesummaries. Reáectionsshoulddemon- state a connection between the discussion/readings and the larger fabric of personal political and social thought development. When writing, take into account the following questions. Whyaretheseargumentsimportant? Whyisthisargumentimportanttome? How was the discussion framed? Debated? How has this issue been experienced or understood among di§erent social groups? Have you experienced this personally or read about this in the news? In other classes? How might this connect to your own learning and professional work? How would educators/professional/activists/politicians/various international communities respond to this issue? Be sure to substantiate your claims with evidence from the readings.
Students will not be graded on the nature of their opinion. They will be graded on their ability to anticipate and neutralize counter-arguments.


Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans:
A Critical Response Paper
Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans:
A Critical Response Paper
A Stereotype is something that conforms to an established pattern especially when a general mental image is set in members of a particular group that holds it in common and portrays an uncritical judgment, an oversimplified opinion, or a prejudiced attitude (Stereotype, n. d.). It is widely common especially in our country that host a lot of different races. One of the races who experience stereotyping is the African American Race. The origins of this stereotype could probably still be traced back from the colonial times and the slave trade era. It is at those times that the White Race have thought that their race is superior to the Blacks. The Film “12 Years A Slave” which was based on the book by Solomon Northup was a great depiction of this. The treatment and abuse of the slaves are indeed a great prejudice to the Black race. Williams stated in her 2011 article, that contaminated and dirty were how African Americans were viewed in history. These views had even later resulted in the laws segregating the Blacks and the Whites under the pretense of preventing diseases and cleanliness. There were separate utilities such as bathrooms, swimming facilities and drinking fountains (Williams, 2011). Centuries have passed and our society had changed greatly since then. Yet, the stereotypes given to African Americans have still not been erased. There is a risk of this negative stereotype being confirmed as self-characteristic and this predicament is defined by Aronson and Steele, in their 1995 study, as a stereotype threat (Aronson and Steele, 1995). Their study which they conducted in 1995 had the title of, “Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Test Performance of African Americans”. According to the authors, African Americans are stereotyped to perform poorly in the intellectual or explicitly scholastic task. Their paper aimed to know if the stereotype threat would affect the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Aronson and Steele conducted 4 studies in this paper to prove their point. This paper will give a critical response to the study of Aronson and Steele's confirmed hypotheses that the society's negative stereotype on the intellectual ability and competence of African Americans may hinder the student's intellectual functioning, particularly in a standardized test. Considering a lot of intellectually famous African Americans of today, the students' intellectual test performance might indeed be hindered due to the negative stereotype yet I would argue that this is not the sole factor that may or may not contribute to their success but negative stereotype threat is important enough to have a definitive impact in how one's performance in life will turn out for the better or for the worse.
Aronson and Steele's paper along with other papers with similar studies are good contributions in knowing the effect of negative stereotyping to a certain group of people. I personally believe that when people are driven to the extent and choose to conform to the negative stereotypes unfortunate consequences happen. Stereotyping happens everywhere. There are stereotypes in race, culture, profession, places, gender and etc. Women are also mostly at the receiving end of the stereotype in gender. Indeed, there is also risk or it could already be a reality that some women around the world have already conform to the negative stereotype of being lower than men thus, cruelty and abuse are rampant and voices had been suppressed. Women are subjected to genital mutilation in African countries and cultures because of the...

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