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Chapter 2 Assignment: Portable Pen Design Vein Allocator (Other (Not Listed) Sample)


Hello, I would like to receive a report regarding a portable vein allocator project by using a heartbeat sensor. The report should be written in IEEE format. There is a typical structure of the project which I would like you to follow in the attached document.
For chapter 3, the different models and their limitations are: 1) Sound sensor: surrounding noise difficult to detect vein, 2) X-ray camera- not accurate for deep veins, already exists, expensive, not portable and heavy, 3) Doppler: hard to find the device, not accurate to detect vein.
In chapter 5, the final design which will be chosen is the portable pen design which can be seen in the documents attached. Also, the list below shows the future modifications to be implemented in the project.
1) Bluetooth instead of arduino
2) Schmitt trigger circuit will be added
3) Signal smoothing will be added
4) Audio amplifier IC 810 circuit will be added


1.1 Abstract
The present project research team purposes project to develop a vein allocator device to identify specific veins in hospital. The researcher applies the concept gained in the semester with a focus on electronic and computer engineering skills to achieve the objectives of the project. Furthermore, the report gives a review of work designs for allocators to provide their comparisons on features, maps, and functionality to select the best option based on the cost benefits. The project also highlights project evaluations on the potential risks among others. Lastly, the conclusion of the project reiterates the entire work with appendices demonstrating all the endeavors in the project.
1.2 Introduction
Nurses and healthcare givers in hospitals face challenges in allocating human veins to collect blood samples for various medical purposes. During the venipuncture procedures in hospitals, nurses insert needles into the vein of a patient to collect blood samples. Even though, nurses see such processes as easy procedures, many patients report cases of painful experiences during the process of insertion in the arms more than once to get the appropriate vein. Researchers on vein detection procedures reveal that nurses find it difficult to detect suitable veins for blood samples. The various reasons for such challenges include techniques the nurses use to extract blood, the inexperience of the nurses who perform such processes cause discomfort to the patients. Furthermore, some patients have no prominent veins, or such veins have deep allocations hence it is hard to detect or see such veins. Age of the patient makes the veins deep in the skin especially for the elderly. The elderly patients have excess skin that causes the vein challenging to detect. On the other hand, young children have small veins coupled with their movements. Therefore, nurses find it difficult to perform venipuncture appropriately. Separately, nurses use skin color and weight to detect the veins to collect blood samples. However, the use of portable pen design vein allocator helps nurses to quickly allocate and identify veins in the human body with no complications in drawing of blood while patients will never experience pain during the procedure [1].
The portable pen design vein allocator accurately locates a vein in the thick skin. Thus, the project design helps in the implementation of the skills in programming and electronics to develop a portable vein allocator with a pen design. The model provides a unique algorithm for the device to detect the veins in the human body. Therefore, the researcher aims to develop a tool that will display the human veins with a focus on the benefits of potable vein detector. Hence, the method will allow healthcare practitioners to soothe and allocate veins during venipuncture procedures. Furthermore, the design for the vein allocator will provide a new approach for venipuncture process.
Chapter 2: Portable Pen Design Vein Allocator
2.1 Aim of the project
To design and develop an affordable pen design vein allocator for the human body that is reliable and efficient.
2.2 Expectations of the project
The project design takes the benefits of strengths and reduces the weaknesses to develop a secure device with limits and constraints specific to the proposal of the project. Besides, the researcher expects the design to work efficiently with low costs. However, the team anticipates limited challenges from both the hardware and the software parts due to sensors and programs designed for the device.
Chapter 3: Theoretical Foundation: The Engineering Model
3.1 Introduction
The section provides a theoretical foundation for vein recognition...

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