The philosophies of Western modern philosophers (Other (Not Listed) Sample)
1. What similarities (if any) do you find among the philosophies of Western modern philosophers (Descartes, leibniz, Spinoza), the pre-Socratics, and the ancient texts of Asian philosophy (Upanishads, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism) with respect to their attempt to explain ultimate reality?
2. What pre-Socratic influences can you identify in Plato? (Be specific: e.g., “Plato, like Parmenides, believes that . . .”)
3. What traditional metaphysical issues seem important today?
4. Which modern theories about the nature of reality are materialist? Which are immaterialist?
5. How is Plato responding to the pre-Socratics with his theory of Forms? What is Aristotle’s response to this theory?
6. Explain the problem of substances interacting with each other. How do Descartes, leibniz, and Spinoza, respectively, go about solving this problem. Could any of these solutions help Plato solve the problem of participation? Are there any similarities between participation and the interaction of substances? If so, what are they?
7. What is the value of talking about different “possible worlds,” as leibniz does? Are these literally different worlds?
Chapter one review
What similarities (if any) do you find among the philosophies of Western modern philosophers (Descartes, leibniz, Spinoza), the pre-Socratics, and the ancient texts of Asian philosophy (Upanishads, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism) with respect to their attempt to explain ultimate reality? The philosophies of Western modern philosophers and the ancient texts of Asian philosophy have similarities in their attempt to explain ultimate reality, (Tennant, 2015). The similarities are where they both try to explain the underlying reality that is different from the world as it appears. The western modern philosophers use mainly science while the ancient texts use the supernatural which brought about religion.
What pre-Socratic influences can you identify in Plato? (Be specific: e.g., “Plato, like Parmenides, believes that . . .”)
The teachings of pre-Socratic philosophers influenced some of Plato’s work. The Parmenides’ account of being seems to have contributed to the doctrine of Forms by Plato. This is where like Parmenides, Plato believes that nonphysical but substantial ideas are what represent the most accurate reality, (Tennant, N. (2015). The Heraclitus’ notion of flux also seems to have an influence on Plato’s thinking about ordinary material objects. This is where Plato like Heraclitus believes that the world is always changing though materials may be identical but they are not always the same.
What traditional metaphysical issues seem important today?
The concept of objective truth is the issue that is important in metaphysics today. if individuals do not believe in the absolute truth then everything becomes relative. When everything becomes relative, truth is then replaced by power and it is reduced to what a powerful government or individual has to say, (Tennant, N. (2015). The truth in the world today is believed to be nothing but masks of questions of power.
Which modern theories about the nature of reality are materialist? Which are immaterialist?Mechanical materialism is the theory about nature of reality that is materialist. It is a theory that the world comprises entirely of hard, massy material objects, which, though perhaps imperceptibly small, are otherwise like such things as stones, (Solomon et al, 2001). George Berkeley’s theory of immaterialism is the example of a modern theory that sees nature as immaterialist. The theory believes that
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