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Life Sciences
Lab Report
English (U.K.)
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Urinalysis and Digestive Physiology: Table and Graph Analysis (Lab Report Sample)


hello, I will email both the assessment brief and the result so that you can understand what you are going to do. No introductions, aims, methods for both. You just have to describe the tables and the graph (legend) and discuss the data collected. Thanks


Digestive physiology
The digestive system is what dictates what enters the body, what is absorbed, and what comes out. It is the center of everything that can either benefit or harm the body. It therefore plays an essential role in urinalysis. Urinalysis is a very important procedure since it helps in the analysis of one’s urine composition, so as to come up with knowledge of the distinct composition of urine. It encompasses all the aspects-the chemical, physical as well as the microscopic analysis of urine. The urinalysis experiment was carried out to analyze the five different urine samples of different patients, and in turn use this to come up with a criterion of diagnosing each of these patients.
Salivary amylase, also known as the alpha-amylase is a digestive enzyme produced and secreted by the salivary glands in the mouth. Salivary amylase is secreted chiefly by the parotid gland which secretes little or no mucin (Vasudevan, sreekumariand& vaidianathan, 2010). It starts the digestive process by acting on starch when food is chewed in the mouth converting it into maltose. Maltose is a smaller carbohydrate which has a slightly sweet taste. The main purpose of salivary amylase is to partially digest starches into shorter chains of glucose called polysaccharides, as well as a disaccharides consisting of two glucose molecules called maltose which are easily absorbed by the body (Peluso, 2015).
In exercise one, both tube 3 and 4 contain most starch during incubation. While there is high presence of maltose in tube 2. Benedicts test on Tube 2 turned yellow indicating presence of some maltose. In tube 4 it is evident that boiling saliva reduced enzyme amylase thereby slowing down the process.
From the findings above, we can deduce that salivary amylase acts on starch to produce maltose as confirmed by the yellow color on benedicts tests results. Lugol’s test turns blue in tube 2; indicating presence of starch and salivary amylase action is confirmed by benedict test on the same tube.
Urine can be first analyzed by the use of its physical properties. These include color, odor, turbidity, pH as well as specific gravity. Generally, urine has a yellow color. This is however affected to a great extent by the volume of the solute in the urine, which can sometimes result to a very deep yellow color. This yellow coloring of urine is typical due to the urochrome pigment, which is ever present in urine. Other factors that affect the urine color include drugs and a number of vegetables. The odor of fresh urine is sometimes usually aromatic, however, the bacterial activity that sets in immediately the urine is released, is what gives it the ammonia-like smell.
When it comes to turbidity, urine is usually clear or transparent. It does however tend to become more and cloudier when stationary. This is however not a problem since it is an indicator of the presence of cells such as leukocytes, minerals such as phosphates, and also mucus and bacteria. The average pH of urine is usually 6.0.This is testament that urine is slightly more acidic than basic. It should however be noted that the diet that one takes usually plays a vital part in the determination of the urine’s PH. For example, a diet rich in proteins usually increases the acidity of urine, while that rich in vegetables does the opposite, by increasing basicity.
The specific gravity is just a measure of the urine’s density. It therefore indicates just how concentrated or dilute, a urine sample is at agiven moment. Considering that water has a specific gravity of 1, urine will most obviously have a higher specific gravity due to the presence of dissolved substances in it. Dilute urine has a lower specific gravity compared to concentrated urine. However...
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