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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Lab Report
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Lab 5 Assignment: Sex Estimation in the Human Skeleton (Lab Report Sample)


This lab report is regarding the Anthropology. The detail of instruction and grading rubric are in the attachment, please read the attachment carefully and use the data of I have gathered and recorded in part A and finish the lab report in part B. The useful textbook for this lab report is "Jurmain, Robert, Lynn Kilgore, Wenda Trevathan, Eric J. Bartelink (2016) Essentials of Physical Anthropology, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. "

Lab 5: Sex Estimation in the Human Skeleton


For the lab, use the criteria below to determine the sex of the skeletal remains provided in your lab. 


You will collect and record data as a group. Do discuss your findings with the group in the remaining lab time. However, you must submit an individual and independent report!


Human osteology, or the study of human skeletal remains, can be applied to a number of fields within biological anthropology, including human paleontology, paleopathology, bioarchaeology, and forensic anthropology. Demographic variables such as sex and age are extremely important components of the basic biological profile discussed in lecture. In this lab, you will learn to identify characteristics that aid in estimating sex in the human skeleton. Keep in mind, that overall size does not necessarily indicate the sex of an individual (note the variation that exists in height and robusticity among males and females in class).


Here are some skeletal directional terms to know:

            - medial (toward the midline)

            - lateral (away from the midline

            - ventral (belly)

            - dorsal (back)

            - anterior (front)

            - posterior (back)


Male skull:

Mastoid process is larger

Nuchal crest is present

Frontal bone slants backward

Supraorbital ridges/torus is larger

Supraorbital rim is more blunt

Chin is more squared, mental eminence more pronounced

Ascending ramus is thicker, at right angle

Mandible flares at the angle with the ascending ramus


Female skull:

Mastoid process is smaller

Nuchal crest is small or absent

Frontal bone is more globular

Supraorbital ridges/torus is smaller

Supraorbital rim/border is sharper

Chin more pointed/ mental eminence less pronounced

Ascending ramus is at obtuse angle

Mandible flares less at the angle with the ascending ramus


Male pelvis:

Subpubic angle is less than 90o

Subpubic concavity rare

No ventral arc

Narrow sciatic notch

Obturator foramen is oval

Sacrum is curved, narrow

Preauricular sulcus absent


Female pelvis:

Subpubic angle greater than 90o

Subpubic concavity present

Ventral arc present

Wide sciatic notch

Obturator foramen is triangular

Sacrum is straighter, wide

Preauricular sulcus is present


Lab Report
Lab Report
When working with specimen, one of the first part involves the identification of the part and then there is the determination of the sex of the organism that the part may belong to. This is especially the case when working with bones. A bone specimen is one that requires special scrutiny relative to the fact that, there are quite a number of bones on any one single organism and there are millions of specimens with similar bones within any given genus. When working with a skull specimen, one o...
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