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Pages:
6 pages/≈1650 words
Sources:
3 Sources
Level:
APA
Subject:
Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Type:
Lab Report
Language:
English (U.S.)
Document:
MS Word
Date:
Total cost:
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Topic:

Determination of Exposure to A Contagious Disease Using ELISA (Lab Report Sample)

Instructions:

Write ELISA Lab report, In this lab, I'm in group 5a my initial is HH(sample # 46) and my partner Initial name is ep. You have to come up with the sample # where the infection spread from and include that in your analysis section. The class information on the sharing information (excel) and class results for you to analyze your results.

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Content:


Determination of Exposure to A Contagious Disease Using ELISA
Name and Names of Lab Partners
Date of Submission
Determination of Exposure to A Contagious Disease Using ELISA
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Background information
Antibodies are known to be specific animal and human proteins, which are generated by the white blood cells following the introduction of foreign materials. Such foreign materials, which are referred to as antigens, include pathogens and a number of environmental foreign materials (Brimberg et al., 2015). Biological antigens often present as high-molecular weight molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids that freely circulate or form part of complexes of the bacterial cell surface or virus coats. Antibodies are generated as a response to antigen introduction, and they bind to the antigens, playing a critical role in the eventual removal of antigens from circulation (Alberts, Johnson & Lewis, 2002). For instance, exposure to viral pathogens will cause the body to elicit an antibody response that will eventually result in the production of plasma antibodies that bind to the virus proteins and/or to different parts of the same viral polypeptide.
As the antibody binds to a specific antigen, it can precisely recognize specific sequences, chemical charges or structural conformational molecules. Such structural binding properties form the specific fingerprint for antigens. All antibody molecules bind two specific antigen molecules, and the recognition and binding are highly specific, which makes it possible to differentiate between two circulating viruses that may have a close relationship. Antibody molecules are able to differentiate between two different strains of the same virus, such as in the case of HIV-1 and HIV-2. The antigens and antibodies form complexes through immunoprecipitation, which is a highly specific binding process (Lal, Haynes & Gorospe, 2005). Complex precipitation results from the binding of different polyclonal antibodies to antigens forming a meshwork. Traditionally, in immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies are harvested from animal sera that have been exposed to certain antigens. This serum, also referred to as plasma, is often prepared through the removal of red blood cells, and it contains specific proteins for that individual and the antibodies that are against the antigen introduced in the individual by infection or design (Acker, Marks & Sheffield, 2016). These antibodies are then purified from the samples of plasma and can be utilized in detecting specific antigens, such as infectious agents.
Originally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests were developed to measure antibodies. With the advancement in immunological techniques, these tests can today detect samples containing antigens (Americano do Brasil, Castro & de Castro, 2016). ELISA tests are performed in microtiter plates that are made of either polyvinyl chloride or polystyrene. These plates are transparent and often contain numerous small wells where liquid samples can be deposited. The antigens are first added to these wells where part of them remain adsorbed by hydrophobically associating with the wells upon washing away the surplus. Antigens are usually the whole infectious agent such as bacteria or specific proteins, lysates or a combination of the two (Magnarelli, Norris, & Fikrig, 2012). While there is no specificity in the adsorption process, some substances can exhibit low binding to the walls. In some cases, antigens may covalently be cross-linked to the plastic through UV light. Upon washing the unadsorbed materials, the unbound sites on the walls of the wells are then blocked using milk proteins, gelatin or bovine serum albumin. In real world, ELISA tests have been exploit...

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