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Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Lab Report
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BIOL 230W Assignment: pGlo Bacterial Transformation (Lab Report Sample)


Instructions for Lab ReportsPlease read the instructions carefully before starting to work on a lab report.Key things to remember:a) Use past tense for your entire lab report.b) If you obtain information from any source, please make sure to cite the reference/s properly.Maintain uniformity between your references.c) Cell and Molecular Biology lab reports are quite different from your reports for English,Chemistry or any other subject.d) The report will receive a grade only if the format is followed properly.e) You are welcome to show me your first lab report to make sure you are doing it properly. I willbe happy to provide you my input and suggestions before you turn it in for grading.Section to include in your lab report:• Title page• The title of the experiment• Your name in bold and names of your lab partners• The date the report was submitted• Title• Be brief• You can use the lab title I used as a guide to come up with your own title• Introduction• Background information• Hypothesis• Objectives and purpose of the lab• Materials and Methods• The purpose of this section is for anyone skilled in the art to repeat the experiment1• For materials, include everything needed to perform the experiment• For the procedures, write it in a paragraph format, NOT just numbers/bullets• Or you can simply refer to the materials and materials section provided to you inthe lab protocol• Results• Include pictures, figures, graphs, and/or hand drawings. Make sure to properlylabel them, for example Fig. 1, Graph 1, etc.• Describe what the results mean.• Discussion• Analyze and interpret your data keeping in mind the expected results• Discuss any errors that occurred during the experiment and how they potentiallyaffected your results• Conclusion• Have a brief one sentence conclusion or at the most two sentences• If you have to say anything more than that, move that information to the analysissection• In the end indicate if the hypothesis accepted or rejected (if you had a hypothesisto start with)• Literature citation• You can use APA style or any other format used in a scientific journals likeNature, Science, Cell etc.• Important thing to keep in mind is to maintain uniformity for all your references. 


pGlo Bacterial Transformation
Your Name and Lab Members Names
Your Institution of Affiliation
October 22, 2017
In its most general definition, bacterial transformation happens a cellular organism takes a piece of gene from an external source and adds it up to its own genome. Although this technique is already age-old, this process still opens up new possibilities for future technological innovations in many fields of studies. In the lab, bacterial transformation is usually done through two methods: (1) through calcium chloride shock and/or (2) electroporation. While the first one is done through the incorporation of plasmids inside the “chemically-competent” cells, the latter is done through the utilization of electric shock in order to make the membrane more permeable to the specific DNA targeted. As recorded in history, the very first person to this was Frederick Griffith. Back in 1928, he was able to do this process in his lab, resulting a disastrous effect of transforming a healthy strain of bacteria into a deadly one.
In this study, the authors utilized Escherichia coli or E. coli. This bacteria is a gram negative, quick reproducing, non-fatal, and single celled bacteria, which makes it a good candidate for such types of experiments. Following from this, the researchers also have a dose of Ampicillin that has the ability to destroy the E. coli cells. This antibiotic consists of what we call as a beta-lactam structure.
Another important term that is discussed in the latter sections of this report are plasmids. Mainly, plasmids are small circular pieces of DNA that has the ability to autonomously replicate. This process of plasmid replication is usually happens as they borrow polymerase from the cell in which they reside. Plasmids could easily be experimented even in normal laboratory conditions because its size is just right to be extracted and purified from bacterial cells. And, since they are responsible for protein production and other processes, plasmid replication and modification also presents a number of possibilities in genetics and other fields related to it.
In particular, the researchers have utilized the pGLO plasmid since it contains GFP (Green Florescent Protein) as well as beta-lactamase. It also has a special gene regulation system which are used by most researchers around the world to control gene expression and protein creation. In other to study this type of replication, GFP would be measured as it becomes exposed to UV light. Since GFP becomes more apparent when exposed to UV light, then any changes in its luminescence as a result of gene manipulation makes it easier to understand. In most cases GFP production is monitored by a modified arabinose operon located on the pGLO plasmid. In this mechanism, a araC, a protein, blocks RNA polymerase from binding to the Pbad promoter. This is crucial for this experiment because when arabinose is present, the araC protein promotes RNA polymerase binding, as compared to its original function of promoting it. As this process continu

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