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6 pages/≈1650 words
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Oxford
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Business & Marketing
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English (U.K.)
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Dry Bulk Market (Essay Sample)

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First, discuss the factors behind the enormous crisis in the dry bulk market in the late of 2008. Secondly, the discussion of the impacts of freight deterioration on demolition, sale and purchase and new building market. ------------ Tips: 1) Essay should be properly referenced, sources should be appropriately acknowledged in the text. source..
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Dry Bulk Market
A bulk carrier is a merchant ship designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo such as grains, ore, coal and cement in cargo holds. The first bulk carrier was built in 1852 and since then, there have been great innovations both size and sophistication. Many bulkers found today maximise on capacity, safety and efficiency, and make up a quarter of the world’s merchant fleets. They range in size from single-hold- mini-bulkers to mammoth ore ships. Korea is the largest single builder of bulkers and most of it ships were built in Asia.
Bulk carriers participate in loading and unloading of cargo and keeping its machinery properly maintained. The transport industry faced its sharpest correction in economic structure in the year 2008, since the seventies. The core activities in the sector are demand for transportation services and the money supply to finance the capital costs of the ships and operating expenses. These are not however linked as the demand depends so much on the economic strength of developed countries and money comes from the banking and investment industry. The ships are the capital assets in the business, thus offering a very liquid market in the capital assets (Habron, 2002, p.12). This translates to a very volatile market both in income streams and the cost of value assets which has increased with the years and is made worse by the increasing supply of shipyard in Asia. Prices of all new ships inflated from time to time as shipyards responded to demand which is not concurrent with fright charges.
The year 2008 was also faced with an enormous inflation of freight charges in the energy and raw materials sector, consequently affecting the manufacturing costs in China. This was around the same time that the economies of USA and “old Europe” sank into recession and the world capital markets had the worst disruption in what came to be known as The Great Depression (Burwash, 2000, p.31). The year 2008 dry bulk collapse however, was very different from the other previous market downturns in number of ways; to begin with, China’s economic growth has always been driven by great outsourcing of all types of consumer goods especially from USA and Europe. This is linked to the demand of Chinese manufactured goods in both USA and Europe. If the demand gets low, China’s demand for shipping will also get low. Secondly, capital supply forms the major drive in the shipping industry. Annual expenditures add up to $100bn on new ships alone and $30bn in second hand shipping, no doubt this is a very huge capital consumer (Zeis, 1999, p.23). These funds have been provided as debt to China from commercial banks in USA and Europe, Banks had increased their lending capacities and new forms of loan syndication had emerged. These forms were known as the Securitised Debt Instruments. They were meant to be sold to investors, hedge funds and mutual funds that operate out...
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