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Social Sciences
English (U.S.)
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Causal arguments explore the cause-and-effect relationships in daily and current events. These arguments come up daily in your personal life, as well as public policy. For this essay, you will find and enter the public discourse surrounding a causal argument, using all of the rhetorical techniques that you have learned to write an argument. Steps: Read chapter 11 on Causal Arguments in EAR. Reread it. Focus on developing an argument of cause and/or effect. Remember, there are four ways to do this: - State a cause and then examine its effects (A leads to B, C, and D) - State an effect and trace its causes (D results from A, B, and C) - Move through a series of links (A causes B, which leads to C and perhaps to D) - Question existing claims of causality as inaccurate Choose a Topic. Your choice. For example, you could - Explore the cause-and-effect relationships in a personal, public, or campus issue - Look at a historical or political event already past, and explore its causes or effects - Hypothesize future effects of a possible policy change - Take on a themed reading chapter in EAR and enter that conversation, using it as a source - Pick a topic in your major or discipline, and find the major speakers and stakeholders when the issue is translated into the public realm Choose an audience and publication. Pick a specific newspaper, blog, or magazine where your editorial would appear and match their style ¨C New York Times or Barometer are a couple of default choices, but consider your topic and its likely audience. This will affect your evidence, style, tone, and appeals. Formulate a research question and start reading. Look at opinion pieces and blogs, as well as the Valley Library. Keep an open mind as you learn more ¨C you may need to change your initial thesis to match the research that you find. Organize your research and arguments, and start writing. Your essay should include: - 5-6 pages, plus Works Cited page (12 pt. Times New Roman font, double space, 1 margins, stapled) - Strong and engaging introduction that hooks the reader - Specific causal thesis, including a claim and reasons (see choices above) - Clear explanation of the claim¡¯s significance ¨C so what? who cares? why is this important? - Sufficient evidence to support each cause or effect - Consideration of alternative causes and effects - At least 6 outside sources, including at least one book, one scholarly article, and four other credible sources (articles, reputable opinion blogs, editorials) o Four of these sources should be introduced in the body of your paper as speakers voicing opinions on the subject. The other two can be used as background information, if you prefer. Final Step: Rhetorical Analysis (1/2 page) In which publication would you publish this editorial? How did you adapt your style, word choice, evidence, and tone to match the publication and its audience? Give examples. What did you change after peer review? Give examples. What do you like about your final product? What are you still thinking about? source..
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In many countries of the world, gay people have been unnecessarily denied the right to donate blood. Among the major reasons as to why these people are denied this right is the assumption that the higher sero-prevalence of HIV in this group of people will lead to infections related to blood transfusions. There are still more questions on whether these men ought to be allowed to donate their own blood as well as to define referral period based on the time of starting new relationships.
Under the current FDA regulations for instance, people who have ever had sex with others of the same sex are not expected to donate blood. These exemptions have resulted in great shortage of blood in blood banks. Further, These Men who are willing to save lives are stripped opportunities in donating their blood with disregard to whether they had undertaken precautions during sexual activities or not. Such a system could be rightly termed as discriminatory and reduces the amount of blood that could be used to save lives (Wainberg et al, 2010, p12).
In the present perspective, mechanisms to curb donation of infected blood from these group of people are enough in many countries to warrant safety precaution against the prospect of transfusing infected blood. This is because, as blood services and agencies relegated with the task of acquiring blood from donors accept blood from these people, they should ask them to provide sufficient details related to their medical history, and or behaviours that may have precipitated the occurrence of ill effect in this blood. Persons who are perceived as having risky blood should not be considered for blood transfusion. Details that are in most case required from these people and which may determine the riskiness include using injection in drug use, general exposure to infections, prostitution and gay sex (Nass , et al. 2005, 45:404-13).
Nass, et al (2005) observes that the regulation in disallowing gays to donate blood is based on a wrong assumption that these people were actively involved in irregular sex. However, a 1992 US study established that 42% of the 9% of the population that had homosexual relationship did not continue to do so beyond 18 years. This means that the current policies pertaining to deferrals of blood donations among these people are highly misguided (45:404-13).
The main significance for collecting and distributing blood is generally to assist those who need them. Hence, therefore, there is no necessity for these blood agencies and services to focus much of their attention on rights of individuals; as this will be regarded as discrimination. Apparently, Canadian Blood services, Hema Quebec and other states that disallow blood donation from gays argue that their discrimination against such individuals in donating blood is meant to protect the integrity of the blood supply. Ho...
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