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midterm (Essay Sample)

Please answer the three questions in a separate sheet of paper, typed, double spaced and citing any and all references to books in at most 2-3 pages per question. I do not want you to merely quote from the book, you must be able to explain what each of the concepts mean, provide examples. Imagine I have no idea what you are talking about and you must teach this to me. text: Richard T. De George, BUSINESS ETHICS, 7th ed. questions: 1/What is the distinction between causal responsibility and moral responsibility? What are, if any, the excusing conditions for moral responsibility? What role do these excusing conditions play in terms of a) moral responsibility and b) moral accountability? 2/What is the difference between a stockholder and a stakeholder at the level of a corporation? Please describe any and all possible levels of moral responsibility within the corporation. What does this say about the corporation, that is, at what level is the corporation to be held responsible for its actions: as a moral entity, only in terms of its policy makers, or in terms of any or all of its employees? 3/Why ought there be an open and public system of corporate disclosure at the level of corporations? What is misappropriation? How does it relate to insider trading? Please provide an argument in favor of insider trading and at least two arguments against. source..
1 What is the distinction between causal responsibility and moral responsibility? What are, if any, the excusing conditions for moral responsibility? What role do these excusing conditions play in terms of a) moral responsibility and b) moral accountability? Causal responsibility and moral responsibility are very similar in the sense that both are referring to a person`s action at a given point in time or in an event and an obligation of an individual to do what should be done in a certain situation to produce an effect that may be either desirable or undesirable CITATION Ric09 \l 1033 (DeGeorge). However, there is a difference between the two. Causal responsibility is an obligation of a person that is commanded by authority or is compelled by his duty that should be satisfied to attain good results in a given situation." On the other hand, moral responsibility may result to positive or negative consequences and reactions of other people depending on a decision of an individual to do something that is usually personally believed to be virtuous CITATION Ric09 \l 1033 (DeGeorge). To further understand these two responsibilities it is best to view these in a situation. In a business one of the manager`s responsibilities is to make the business sustainable. As a causal responsibility the manager is expected to make decisions and actions that lead towards this goal and ensures that this is achieved. Therefore, if the owner of the business now tells the manager that some workers should be dismissed from their work because the business should be more profitable or this will increase earnings, even if all the workers are excelling and are valuable to the company, some employees will surely be terminated by the manager. Even if the manager sees the employees as assets of the business the people will still be fired because the former ensures that the company is sustainable. On the other hand, using the same scenario applying moral responsibility the manager will act otherwise. If the manager allows moral responsibility to rule when handling employees he will then talk to the owner and discuss the business` moral responsibilities. The manager may say that the employees are very good, efficient and effective assets to the company and did not do anything against the company therefore dismissing them is not moral. Furthermore, as employer, the company also has a responsibility towards the employee to regularly provide the job especially because these are good employees we are talking about. The business also has an indirect responsibility to the dependent family members of an employee that they are going to terminate. Aside from considering moral obligations of a person in a situation there are also excusing conditions for moral responsibility. Ignorance is one acceptable reason which excuses one from moral responsibility. An example of this is when one opens the light in the hope of seeing in the darkness but pushed the alarm button instead and woke up the whole building, one can be excused for being ignorant on where the switch of the light and the emergency button. Another example is that of a courier asked to deliver a box but is not aware that the box contains deadly chemicals as he travels nonchalantly not knowing the harm he is causing the environment. Even if he is part of the chain of events where something really harmful is taking place, he cannot be made to be fully responsible for everything. Another condition that excuses one from moral responsibility is force. When one is compelled to act by threat or direct violence, one`s freedom is compromised and full moral responsibility can be excused. People who marry at gunpoint or those who have sex because of a threat is not really free in his or her actions. Another example of this are hypnosis, kidnapping, and brainwashing. Refugees who are forced to move...
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