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Global warming (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
Prior to beginning this Lesson note the impacts of climate change throughout the world, illustrated on the National Geographic web site. (Note: this site will open in a new window.) This Lesson focuses on the IPCC Working Group II report which details impacts, adaptation and vulnerability issues caused by climate change throughout the world, including North America. Download the Summary For Policy Makers (Site opens in a new window, PDF 924 K) or go to the IPCC website. Then select the Full Report under Working Group II Report Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, and select SummaryFor Policy Makers. The following conclusions are stated in the IPCC Report. Read the material in the IPCC report for each of the conclusions and, in your journal, answer the following questions. You can use point form for your answers. 8.1 “Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increase.” * How is earlier spring weather affecting: o Animals? o Plants? 8.2 “A global assessment of data since 1970 has shown it is likely that anthropogenic warming has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems.” * What is meant by “anthropogenic warming”? * What does the IPPC report say about the possibility that the observed effects could have been caused by natural variability of temperature or by natural systems? 8.3 “Other effects of regional climate changes on natural and human environments are emerging, although many are difficult to discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers.” * State an example where temperature changes have been documented. 8.4 “More specific information is now available across a wide range of systems and sectors concerning the nature of future impacts, including for some fields not covered in previous assessments.” * State two future impacts on freshwater. * State three future impacts on global food production. * State four future impacts on coastal systems and low lying areas. * State four future impacts on human health. 8.5 “More specific information is now available across the regions of the world concerning the nature of future impacts, including for some places not covered in previous assessments.” * How will global warming will affect people living in Africa for each of the following: o Drinking water? o Agriculture? o Local food supplies? o How will global warming affect the following in Asia: + Glacier melt? + Freshwater availability? + Crop yields? + What is expected to happen to the forests in eastern Amazonia? + How will global warming affect the following in North America: # Forests? # Agriculture in both earlier and later decades? # Health impacts in cities? # Coastal communities? + How will glaciers and ice sheets in Polar Regions be affected? + What are the potential negative impacts of global warming for indigenous people in the Arctic? + What are the potential beneficial impacts of global warming for people living in and using the Arctic? 8.6 “Impacts due to altered frequencies and intensities of extreme weather, climate and sea-level events are very likely to change.” Referring to Table SPM.1 in the IPCC Report, what is the likelihood of each of the following events: * Over most land areas, warmer and fewer cold days and nights, warmer and more frequent hot days and nights? * Warm spells/heat waves. Frequency increases over most land areas? * Heavy precipitation events. Frequency increases over most areas? * Area affected by drought increases? * Intense tropical cyclone activity increases? * Increased incidence of extreme high sea level (excludes tsunamis)? 8.7 “Some large-scale climate events have the potential to cause very large impacts, especially after the 21st century.” What are the two major events? 8.8 “Impacts of climate change will vary regionally but, aggregated and discounted to the present, they are very likely to impose net annual costs which will increase over time as global temperatures increase.” What is the minimum global temperature change that very likely will cause declines in net benefits or increases in net costs for all regions of the world? 8.9 “Some adaptation is occurring now, to observed and projected future climate change, but on a limited basis.” The report uses the Confederation Bridge in Canada as an example where adaptation has occurred. Do an Internet search, and explain the adaptation. 8.10 “Adaptation will be necessary to address impacts resulting from the warming which is already unavoidable due to past emissions.” What is the expected temperature change due to past greenhouse gas emissions, even if emissions were to remain at the level in the year 2000? 8.11 “A wide array of adaptation options is available, but more extensive adaptation than is currently occurring is required to reduce vulnerability to future climate change. There are barriers, limits and costs, but these are not fully understood.” State five barriers to implementation of adaptation strategies. source..
Content:
Name
Lecturer
Course
Date
Global Warming
8.1 “Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly temperature increase.”
How is earlier spring weather affecting: Animals? Plants?
There is effect on agriculture in higher latitudes where the planting of crops is done earlier; the alteration of interruption of the living regimes caused by forest fires and pest.
8.2 “A global assessment of data since 1970 has shown it is likely that anthropogenic warming has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems.”
What is meant by “anthropogenic warming”?
This is warming caused by human impacts on the environment.
* What does the IPPC report say about the possibility that the observed effects could have been caused by natural variability of temperature or by natural systems?
The IPPC report suggests that global warming in different parts of the world is very unlikely to be caused by natural variability.
8.3 “Other effects of regional climate changes on natural and human environments are emerging, although many are difficult to discern due to adaptation and non-climatic drivers.”
State an example where temperature changes have been documented.
At the Arctic regions where human activities such as hunting and travel impact on the levels of ice; and in alpine regions areas of low elevation.
8.4 “More specific information is now available across a wide range of systems and sectors concerning the nature of future impacts, including for some fields not covered in previous assessments.”
* State two future impacts on freshwater.
The annual average run off from rivers and the availability of water is expected to rise by 10 – 40 percent in areas of high attitudes and wet tropical areas. In addition, there will be a 10 – 30 percent decrease in dry regions that are located at mid latitude areas ...
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