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Mathematics & Economics
English (U.S.)
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Analyst for FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) (Essay Sample)


The paper's main topic is the question of the pdf profile exercise 25, which is related to the readings in the pdf profile.

Disaster Management Model
Disasters occur when extreme events exceeds the ability of a community to contain them. Therefore, it is important to understand how disasters affects the community. Fist, the information is important to identify what factors make the community vulnerable to the disasters. Second, the information helps to identify what community segments are likely to experience severe impacts. Third, the information helps in identifying factors or events in the community that determine the level of impact. Finally, the information allows planners and disaster response team to identify the best interventions to mitigate the impact. The impact of disasters to the community can be explained through the use of a model.
There are three conditions and three event specific conditions that are considered when choosing the best model to use. They include; hazard exposure, physical vulnerability and social vulnerability. Event-specific conditions include; characteristics of the event, disaster intervention responses, and disaster recovery responses. Characteristics of the events and disaster intervention responses together with pre-impact conditions result in physical impacts. Social impacts results from the combination of both physical impacts and recovery responses.
Hazard Exposure
This is as a result of people occupying certain geographical areas which are prone to events that threaten their lives and properties. In case of natural hazards, this exposure is due to people living in geographical areas that are vulnerable to these disasters such as occupying floodplains. In case of technological hazards, exposure to disasters will be as a result of people moving into areas which are vulnerable to explosions. In general, being exposed to hazards is measured by the probability of an event to occur, but it can be difficult to obtain these probabilities if there is insufficient historical data. This is experienced when attempting to estimate the probability of social hazards such as terrorism since their occurrence depends on the dynamics of the social system, which cannot be modeled like physical systems.
Physical vulnerability
Human vulnerability. Human beings are vulnerable to temperatures, chemical exposures that can cause injury or illness and pressure. For every agent such as wind, toxic chemicals or water, responses vary among the exposed people. In the same level of exposure, some people may die, others get severe injuries, and others get slight injuries while others may not be affected. In general, the most affected people in case of any disaster are the young, very old, and people whose immune system is weak.
Agricultural vulnerability. Like human beings, animals and plants are susceptible to environmental extremes. Also, the level of impact varies among the plants and animals. However, this is more complex since there are different species of plants and animals that need to be assessed and each has its own response mechanisms to environmental stressors.
Structural vulnerability. This happens when materials that are not able to resist extremes are used in the construction of buildings. Any construction is guided by codes which are aimed at protecting the safety of those who will occupy those buildings.
Social Vulnerability
This has been defined as people’s “capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impacts of natural hazard” (Wisner, Blakie, Canon & Davis, 11). Social vulnerability varies across the communities.
The model described in the class provides a framework on how to understand various risks in the community and prepare disaster management team to implement the emergency management interventions. Therefore, I am going to describe how FEMA can use this model to guide assessment...
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