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Parkinson's disease (Essay Sample)

i will send info. the source is just a paper i emailed. Based on NEURO.pdf source..
Parkinson`s disease
Parkinson`s disease (PD) is an age related disease caused by disfunctioning of the brain leading to loss of balance, trembling of the muscle and weak body organs. Its major cause is the degeneration of neurons in the brain. Pathologically, PD is the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta which is accompanied by the presence of intracellular Lewy bodies. Several factors including protein misfolding, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction, have been reported although the exact mechanisms of PD have not been reported. Impairment of mitochondrial function also causes the pathogenesis of PD. (Dr. Factor, Dr. Wiener). Mitochondria produces ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Superoxide radicals are produced as by products during this process causing electron transport failure in energy metabolism resulting to damage and death of cells.
There are a number of environmental factors that contribute to Parkinson`s disease. Some of these factors are such as environmental toxins e.g. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine(MPTP) and pesticides such as paraquat, organophosphates etc. These chemicals interact with gene expression and modulate expression of mutated genes in humans thus causing PD.
Parkinson`s disease so far has no cure; however, a number of treatments are in use such as the physical treatment. The reason this is used is that the PD causes pains in the muscles and therefore, a specialist will put the patient in a program to exercise the body parts thus realizing the pain. Another PD treatment is the use of nutraceuticals. This is where food products are used to provide health and medical benefits. Food nutrients are used to prevent as well as to treat Parkinson`s disease. The foods may be in the form of dietary supplements, specific diets, herbal products, or processed foods. It is accepted that neurons are prevented by neuroprotection from succumbing to damages from various insults.
Drug therapy is another treatment for PD. Various drugs such as levodopa, pergolide among others are used to manage the symptoms of the disease as well as to slow the progression of the disease. Surgical treatment may also be used in the treatment of PD. This is because some patients may not benefit from drug therapy due to side effects of the drugs. There are four categories of surgical therapy in PD treatment namely; Pallidotomy, Thalamotomy, electrical Stimulation and neural implants.
Nutraceutical treatment is commonly used in the treatment of PD. One of the nutraceuticals in use is the Antioxidant Vitamin Supplements (vitamins C and E). This nutraceutical has effects in its support as a neuroprotective agent. Supportive outcomes were shown in an open label trial where patients with PD were administered with high doses of Antioxidants in the early stage of the disease. The symptoms were delayed 2.5 to 3 years before the patients...
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