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A Reflection Paper (Comprehensive essay) (Essay Sample)

the essay topic is in the attachment note. with all the instruction. THIS IS THE ESSAY TOPIC In a comprehensive essay, refelct on how you have changed your view on thinking because of this course? Comment on not only what you have learned, but also on how you have grown or not grown from this course and its refelction on thinking. This essay is due at noon on Sunday december 16 During the course,we have read about ‘' what pragmatism means'' by William James, and ‘'pragmatism conception of truth'' Jean Baudrillard is a French postmodern philosopher. He has been particularly concerned with the extent to which modern technology, especially the communications media, simulate reality. One of his provocative works is The Gulf War Did Not Take Place (1995). Immanuel Kant, Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals (selections) You will find this reading in the Life of the Mind course reader. Kant's ethical treatise, published in 1785, is thought by many philosophers to be one of the most important works on ethics ever written. Kant, perhaps more than any other moral philosopher, offers a principle of ethical decision-making which rests on rules which are absolute in nature. As you read the excerpt, consider the questions. 1. How is Kant so certain that he knows the answer to the question : "How can I know what is the right thing for me to do?" 2. Why is it that, according to Kant, we could never will a universal law of making a false promise? 3. For Kant, how are we to distinguish between a hypothetical and a categorical imperative? Ayn Rand, The Virtue of Selfishness (selections) do other people matter You will find this reading in the Life of the Mind course reader. Writing in the mid-twentieth century, Rand is the author of two popular novels, Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, in addition to more strictly philosophical works. In these selections, she argues against "altruism" as that mode of human behavior which prevents us from realizing our dignity as self-respecting individuals, acting from one genuine motive: self-interest. Questions As you read the excerpt, consider the questions. 1. For Rand, why does altruism lead us on a path away from our primary moral obligations? 2. According to Rand, why has selfishness been held in such low esteem by most moralists? 3. How does Rand attempt to counter traditional moral arguments against selfishness? 4. 5. 6. 7. IS LIFE SACRED James Rachels, Active and Passive Euthanasia You will find this reading in the Life of the Mind course reader. In this article, James Rachels, a contemporary moral philosopher specializing in applied ethics, distinguishes between so-called active and passive euthanasia, and strongly defends the use of both as the means to relieve the suffering of patients. These distinctions are also discussed in Lecture Note #7.2.3. Questions As you read the article, consider the questions. 1. What, according to Rachels, are the primary arguments, against any distinctions being made between active and passive euthanasia? 2. On what basis does Rachels argue that so-called active euthanasia might be more humane than passive euthanasia? 3. How does Rachels support his argument that killing is not worse than "letting die?" IS DEMOCRACY OVERRATED Plato - Allegory of The Ship In this famous allegory, Plato uses the character of Socrates to compare navigating a ship to leading a city or state. Socrates argues that a ship should be commanded by the person with true knowledge of navigation, not by the strongest or the most persuasive member of the crew, or by the majority of crewmembers. He argues, further, that a city or state is like a ship in that uninformed leadership will likely lead to its destruction. Reading Plato, “Allegory of the Ship,” Republic, 488a-489e. Questions As you read the excerpt, consider the questions. 1. Is Socrates right about the similarities between commanding a ship and leading a city? 2. Are there significant differences between the two activities? If so, what are they? 3. What kind of knowledge is needed to be a good leader? Plato - Allegory of The Cave In Book Seven of The Republic, Plato describes a cavern in which a group of prisoners have been shackled with their heads fixed in place, all facing a wall upon which they observe flickering shadows, with no knowledge of the real, outside world. The Allegory of the Cave can be interpreted, simply, as a metaphorical representation of a theory of knowledge, in which only the true philosopher -- not the rest of us -- can perceive reality. However, this allegory also has serious political consequences and may be read as a critique of democracy. Reading Plato, “Allegory of the Cave,” Republic, 514a-521c. Questions As you read the excerpt, consider the questions. 1. What is Plato's main complaint about democracy? 2. Do you agree with Plato that philosophers (who possess true knowledge) should rule? Why or why not? The Cave offers a visual explanation of Plato's Allegory of The Cave. This exercise is also linked in Assignments. source..
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A reflection paper
Philosophy has been accused by many quarters and referred as the source of doubt and uncertainty in men. Mannion acknowledges that it has been accused for its challenge in the existing norms and standards thus shaking the foundations of the most held beliefs and values. With its focus on questioning rather than offering answers it leaves people scratching their heads and asking, what next now( Mannion, 12)! Thinking is not a friendly job especially for those individual who do not like to spend time in empty thoughts. It is good for one to understand all the writing we know and use do exist because someone spend time and thought tireless to achieve it (Mannion, 12). In the same manner, it would be a good idea for me to spare some time and write a reflective essay on what I have learned in throughout this course. This will enable me to recapture what I was able to understand in the whole course.
During the course we learned many things including pragmatism and its concept of truth authored by William James. He explained its usefulness in making people understand what they take as the true belief. It holds that to have a belief is to have certain rules for action. It goes further to acknowledge that every notion has its practical consequences. The meaning of a thought is said to be whatever course of action necessarily follow from it. Disputes of false and true notions in metaphysics must be settled through the consideration of the consequences of the two notions (Mannion, 46). James went ahead to say that there are two ways of knowing things; intuitively and knowing them conceptually. For instance, knowing a white paper in our years is intuitively and knowing Lions in Kenya is conceptually.
Secondly, Kant is said to be the father of Kantian ethics which are also known as duty ethics. Charlesworth notes that a very crucial statement to understand with Kant is that he said everyone on this world should be treated as an ends but not as a means (Charlesworth, 23). This means that everyone has to be treated with dignity and as someone with intrinsic worth; treat people as if they are people like you. His ethics runs on categorical imperative; unconditional commands. For instance, if killing is wrong then it means under all situations it remains wrong. The big categorical imperatives dictate all the rules ones have to live by (Charlesworth, 24).This means is that when you are choosing your rules to live by, you must make certain these are rules you would want the rest of the world to live by.
Thirdly, the virtue of selfishness is a collection of writings that were presented by Ayn Rand. They touched on her radical moral code of rationa...
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