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"All the Shah's Men" By Kinzer (Essay Sample)


Answer ONE of the questions provided on the essay prompt (pick either 1 OR 2). The essay is based on Stephen Kinzer's "All the Shah's Men." Please answer the questions in reference to the book and use quotes from the book to further explain/support your answer to either of the questions. PLEASE DO NOT USE OUTSIDE/INTERNET SOURCES. The last writer used the internet and copied from multiple people's work. Please don't do that. You can use the internet for research, but explain using your own words. I have also attached a guide that was provided for any assistance. Please look at the guide for help in writing the essay. Thank you.


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"All the Shah's Men" By Kinzer
The motives of Iran’s 1953 coup
Iran’s 1953 coup was the brain-child of President Dwight Eisenhower and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who had huge interests in the oil-rich country. Upon the democratic election of Prime Minister Mossadegh, Britain lost control of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) after the prime minister nationalized the company and the country took control of the company’s refinery at Abadan (Kinser 2). While Iranians wanted to control the country’s vast petroleum reserves and gain economic success, Britain wanted to regain control of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, seeking the support of the United States, the World Court, and the United Nations (Kinser 2-3). After the exit of America’s President Harry Truman, who had rejected Britain’s plea for help, the incoming American president, Dwight Eisenhower, was eager to help, engaging the CIA to overthrow a foreign government for the first time (Kinser 2-4). Both the United States and Britain conspired to overthrow Prime Minister Mossadegh, leading to Iran’s 1953 coup.

Operation Ajax was a CIA coup against Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and the democratically elected government of Iran. United States president, President Eisenhower, commissioned Operation Ajax, headed by Kermit Roosevelt, to overthrow Mossadegh (Kinser 4). The United States, as well as Britain, were terrified of the oil-rich Iran, that also shared a long border with the Soviet Union, and had an active Communist Party. The economic potential of Iran as a “second China” frightened the United States and a pro-Western prime minister seemed like the only solution for the West against Iran (Kinser 4). The removal of Mossadegh was regarded by the West as the best way to preserve their interests in the oil-rich region.

The details of the plan and the reasons for its success
Operation Ajax projected to sponsor a powerful psychological campaign and political attacks against the democratically elected prime minister. The plan was launched by the CIA, which involved Mohammad Reza Shah dismissing Prime Minister Mossadegh from office. Additionally, the CIA paid to have mobs and military officers to put Mossadegh in check and stop him from resisting. The CIA also paid mobs to stage anti- Mossadegh protests in the country’s capital, and endorse Shah by carrying portraits of him and chanting royalist slogans. Further, the CIA paid anyone who might be objected to the coup, including newspapers and other propagandists and ensured that the psychological campaigns went on uninterrupted (Kinser 6). CIA’s psychological campaign weakened Prime Minister Mossadegh’s credibility and destroyed his heroic stature in Iran, and allowed for his capture and subsequent ouster.
The CIA has amassed overwhelming influence over Iran’s affairs, elevating Shah as the ultimate successor after Mossadegh. The CIA orchestrated attacks against Mossadegh, including disseminating propaganda about his “Jewish parentage” and his “secret sympathy for the British” (Kinser 6). While Britain was responsible for Iran’s economic sabotage in a bid to weaken Mossadegh, the United States was determined to position Shah as a reputable leader, including making Shah sign decrees that dismissed Mossadegh. Roosevelt was largely involved in the preparation of Shah, including using Shah’s twin sister, Princess Ashraf, to

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