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Should Scientists Test Products on Animals (Essay Sample)

Philosophy: Argument (or persuasion) can be defined as any communicative act that expresses a point of view. Almost every communicative act (written, spoken, visual) is an argument (persuasive). Appeals to an audience: Think about who you are pitching your proposal/solution(s) to. - Appeals to reason/logic - Appeals to emotion - Appeals to the credibility of the rhetor (author, speaker, artist) _____________________________________________________________________________________ Topic/Inquiry: Interest and/or concern about a topic leads to questions and a search for answers Genre: What form of communication would be most effective? Content & Organization: What are my parameters and/or limitations? What will move my audience to contemplate, to consider, and/or to act? _____________________________________________________________________________________ Stephen Toulmin's Model of Argument Reasons: Why is it important? What are you contributing? (causes/effects) Claim: The statement being argued/proposed. Qualifier(s): Limitations to the claim (under these conditions) Evidence: Personal experience, anecdotes, data, facts, authority (past, present, future) Warrant(s): Underlying values/beliefs; acknowledged viewpoint/lens/standpoint Backing: Support for the warrant Counterclaim(s): Counter-arguments or statements indicating circumstances when the argument does not hold true Rebuttal(s): Response to the counter-argument(s) that supports the claim being made “An argument written in this manner unfolds to reveal both the strengths and limits of the argument. This is as it should be. No argument should pretend to be stronger than it is or apply further than it is meant to. The point here isn't to ‘win' or ‘beat' all the counter-arguments; the point is to come as close to the truth or as close to a realistic and feasible solution as we possibly can….Toulmin's model reminds us that arguments are generally expressed with qualifiers and rebuttals rather than asserted as absolutes.” (cited from http://web(dot)cn(dot)edu/kwheeler/documents/Toulmin.pdf)   OUTLINE OF A PROPOSAL I. Introduction of the problem/proposal A. Material to get the reader's attention (a “hook”) B. Introduce the problem or topic C. Introduce the claim, perhaps with accompanying qualifiers that limit the scope of the argument (narrow your focus) D. Introduce your reasons – Why is your proposal important? What are you contributing? II. Body A. Very briefly, you may need to provide some background information, such as a brief history. B. Very briefly, you may want/need to provide your warrant, underlying assumptions/values/beliefs associated with the proposal. C. Offer evidence/examples in the form of several main points. Keep in mind the appeals to an audience (logic, emotions, credibility). D. Discuss any counterclaims and provide a rebuttal for each. III. Conclusion source..
Should Scientists Test Products on Animals
The use of animals in product testing and medical experimentation is an issue that has influenced debates among scholars and activists fighting for the welfare of animals. In these tests, animals are exposed to suffering through pain and fear. However, experiments and tests conducted by the scientists do not justify safety for the human beings. This is because many of the products that have been made and tested through the animals have not been effective among the people. It has been estimated that tens of millions of animals are used annually in projects and experiments that are funded by private entities and federal agencies. In addition, it is estimated that mice and rats account for 90% of the animals used in these projects and experiments. Different legislations have been enacted at states level to exclude the animals used in scientific projects. However, it is only the Animal Welfare Act (AWA), which sets requirements standards of housing, care, and treatment of animals used in the laboratories. This shows that many issues have been overlooked regarding how the scientists test products on animals. This essay is a discussion of why the scientists should not test products on animals.
Should Scientists Test Products on Animals
According to National Anti-Vivisection Society, toxicity tests in which the safety of chemicals and products is determined was established in the 20th century. This shows that continuation of testing products on animals as practiced by the scientists in the 21st century is a continuing traditional scientific practice. Experiments are conducted to detrmine the level of irritation caused by certain products and chemicals on the skin and the eyes of rabbits, mice, and rats in order to determine the potential effects on the human body. Statistics indicate that 50% of animals on which the products are tested die during the experiements (Kelch 121). The primitive scientist tests by the scientists including LD50 and the Draize tests are still conducted by the modern scientists. The practice of testing products on animals has therefore been a common practice. It is important for the scientists and researchers to develop alternative methods of testing products as a way of enhacing the welfare of animals.
It is unethical and morally wrong to test products on animals (Norman, Jackson and Rosenbaum 177). However, the government can allow the act on the condition that scientists recognize animals as living things with senses and therefore suffer from torture. Many products and devices that are are manufactured and sold to the consumers are subject to strict regulations by the government. The government agencies responsible for the regulations require that goods sold be safe to the people, environment, and the animals. As a result, it is a requirement that manufacturers should conduct toxicity tests on products befo...
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