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4 pages/≈1100 words
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Visual & Performing Arts
English (U.S.)
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Learning theory (Essay Sample)

In a 4 page simpson chapter 1 and the vold chapter and the approved article, you are to answer the questions at the end of both books and discuss the use of the theory in the article and as it is described in the vold text. source..
Running head: Vold’s Theoretical Criminology
Student name
Date of submission Introduction
Criminology is the study of nature and behavior of criminals both individually and in the society. Crimes happen daily and affect most of our day to day activities. These criminals could be our brothers, sisters, parents and relatives but we can’t sell them out because blood is thicker than water. Criminal behavior differs from one person to another, from one society to another.
In learning theories, Sutherland asserts that normal learning behavior basically involves learning of beliefs and ideas while associating with other people. He concludes that ideas and beliefs which are learnt in association with other people in actual sense have a direct causal impact on criminal behaviors. Although it is argued that criminal behaviors may be associated with other learning forms. The recent theories of criminal behavior like Aker’s social learning theory still insist on Sutherland’s view of criminal behavior is normal learned behavior that incorporates modern learning principles. In his theory, Simpson looks at behaviors and ideas of our cultures and subcultures that support criminal behavior. He says that learning culture plays an important role within the society. A description is given of how a negative subculture emerged from a group of youths who reversed the values of the dominant American culture. He further points out that whenever there was an opportunity whether it is genuine or not had no value to an individual unless he learns how to take advantage of it. Athen’s learning theory deals expertly with the various cognitive and behavioral stages that one undergoes on his way to becoming a violent criminal. Sociology fundamentally proposes that criminal behavior is caused by beliefs but does not deny that there is room for structural sources for beliefs. Matsueda further argues by saying that culture is a crucial intervening variable between social structure and individual behavior; this is to say that beliefs including the definitions, expectations on how to behave in certain incidences and social response. The family plays a major role in a bringing up a child in terms of cultural behavior. During her teens, Michele is involved with a gang and other street people. Her family associations have all the necessary values needed within the society. She is taught by her mother how to hold the pipe besides acquiring some other behaviors that she would later use in her life as a prostitute. Her parents did nothing to help get off the ways of the street. From the word go, parents want their children to be people of value to the society, hence a need to bring them up properly.
In differential association theory, Sunderland’s examination of criminal behavior was influenced by a report on criminology that was written by Jerome Micheal and Mortimer J. Adler that appeared in 1933 received several criticisms. He was...
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