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3 pages/≈825 words
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Harvard
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Social Sciences
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English (U.K.)
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SOCIALISM AND ANARCHISM (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
AIP 116 two workbook entrys 2x 500 words Weight: 20% answer all question below for socialism all question together 500 words& for anachism all question together 500 words answers. textbook Heywood's Political Ideologies assessment as 2 x 500 word papers. This assessment must conform to essay writing guidelines and include Harvard in-text referencing and a bibliography. The Workbook comprises ‘Discussion questions' for each topic. Here you will be asked to answer questions directed towards specific readings. These questions are intended to help you to review the content of each topic, and also to prepare for the essay and examination. - Please write your answers and comments in the space provided and keep them very brief. It is acceptable to use note form for most of these exercises. - Initially, you may like to try answering the questions on the basis of your first reading of the texts. - Then you can check your 'answers' by reading the text again. Used in this way the questions should prove to be a useful tool for testing your understanding of, and for revising, individual topics Topic 4 Socialism Discussion questions Read: Heywood, A. 2012. Political Ideologies. 5th edn, pp. 97-109 Answer the following question: 1 What are the most prominent ideas and values in socialist political thought? Read: Heywood, A. 2012. Political Ideologies. 5th edn, pp. 111-114, 118-23. Read Owen ‘Observations on the Effect of the Manufacturing System' in the Reader. Answer the following questions: 2. What does Owen see as the major impact of the rise of manufacturing? To whom does he appeal to correct the negative impact of industrialization? Read Marx, ‘The historical tendency of capitalist accumulation [1867] in the Reader Answer the following question: 3. Marx argues that capitalism has created two social forces that will ultimately bring about its demise. What are these forces? Read Engels ‘Socialism: Utopian and Scientific' in the Reader. Answer the following questions: 4. Why does Engels argue that the state will disappear after the proletarian revolution? Why does Engels regard the rise of monopolies as significant? Second 500 word question: Topic 5 Anarchism Discussion questions Read: Heywood, A. 2012. Political Ideologies. 5th edn, pp. 140-48. Answer the following questions: 1. Why do anarchists reject the authority of the state and organized religion? How is this related to their view of human nature? Read: Goldman, Emma. [1910] 2008. ‘Anarchism: What it really stands for.' In the Reader Answer the following questions: 2. What, according to Goldman, are common misconceptions of anarchism? What is her explanation of crime? Read Kroptotkin, Anarchism in the Reader. 3. Why does Kroptkin argue that anarchism will make possible full indivdualism? What criticism does he make of individualist forms of anarchism? Read Marx, ‘Conspectus of Bakunin's Statism and Anarchy' in the Reader. Answer the following questions 4. Why do Marx and Bakunin disagree about the role of the state after the overthrow of capitalism? Why do they disagree about the function of elections? source..
Content:
SOCIALISM AND ANARCHISM
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Socialism:
Question 1
Heywood, A. (2012) Political Ideologies. Basingstoke: Palgrave
According to Heywood (2012), socialism is a form of labourism, a vehicle for advancing the interest of an organized group. It represents the interests of the working class and offers a program through which workers can achieve economic and political power. In his book, socialism is understood as in a third and broader sense as a political creed or ideology, characterized by a unique cluster of ideas, theories, and values which include community, cooperation, equality, social class, and common ownership (Heywood, 2012). In terms of community, socialism aims at unifying humans as social creatures capable of overcoming social and economic problems by using communal power rather than individual effort. Since human beings are social creatures, socialists believe that the natural relationship amongst them is one of cooperation rather than competition. Equality is a political value distinguishes socialism from its rivals. Social class, on the other hand refers to a group of people with the same social and economic statutes (Heywood, 2012). Socialists see private property ownership as the cause of competition and inequality; socialists treasure common ownership rather than private property ownership (Heywood, 2012).
Question 2
Owen, R. (1817) Observations on the Effect of the Manufacturing System. London: Edinburgh & Glasgow
According to Owen (1817), the rise of the manufacturing industry led to a rapid increase in the wealth, industry, population, and political influence of the British Empire. Owen (1817) also indicates that the general diffusion of manufacturers across a country creates a new character in the citizens; and as this character is formed upon a principle quite unfavorable to individual or general happiness, it will produce most lamentable and permanent evils, unless its tendency be counteracted by legislative interference or direction.
Question 3
Marx, K. (1876) ‘The historical tendency of capitalist accumulation. Peking: Foreign Languages Press.
Marx (1876) argues that capitalist mode of appropriation, which stems from the capitalist mode of production, has led to the production of capitalist private property. Capitalist private property is a perfect example of negation of individual private property, as founded on the labor of the proprietor. The advent of industry, whose involuntary promoter is the bourgeoisie, replaces the isolation of laborers, due to competition and association. Of the classes that stand face to face with the bourgeoisie, the proletariat is a really revolutionary class. The other classes perish and disappear in the face of modern industry. On one hand, the proletariat class blossoms while on the other hand, the lower middle classes struggle. Capitalism has created private property ownership and introduced social class...
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