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Posthumanism (Essay Sample)


This reading list could help:
1. Problematizing Nature and “Man”
Levi-Strauss, Claude
1969 The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Boston: Beacon Press. (Chapter 1, “Nature and Culture”)

Foucault, Michel
1970 The Order of Things : an Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Pantheon. (Concluding Chapters: “Man and His Doubles” and “The Human Sciences”)
Lefebvre, Henri, Eleonore Kofman, and Elizabeth Lebas
1996 Writings on cities. Cambridge, Mass, USA: Blackwell Publishers. (“The Right to the City”)
Latour, Bruno
1991 The Impact of Science Studies on Political Philosophy. Science Technology & Human Values 16(1):3-19.

1993 We have never been modern. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. (“Crisis” & “Constitution”)
Haraway, Donna Jeanne
1991 The Biopolitics of Postmodern Bodies: Constitutions of Self in Immune System Discourse. In Simians, Cyborgs and Women : The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge.
Despret, Vinciane
2004 The Body We Care for: Figures of Anthropo-zoo-genesis. Body & Society 10(2-3):111-134.
Latour, Bruno
2004 How to Talk About the Body? the Normative Dimension of Science Studies. Body & Society 10(2-3):205-229.
Mol, Annemarie, and John Law
2004 Embodied Action, Enacted Bodies: the Example of Hypoglycaemia. Body & Society 10(2-3):43-62.
2. Being and Knowing
A. Cyborgs and Complexities
Biagioli, Mario
1999 The Science Studies Reader. New York ; London: Routledge.
Stelarc, The Body is Obsolete: http://stelarc(dot)org/?catID=20247
Sharp, Lesley A.
2000 The Commodification of the Body and Its Parts. Annual Review of Anthropology 29:287-328.
Laughlin, Charles D.
1997 The Evolution of Cyborg Consciousness. Anthropology of Consciousness 8(4):144-159.
Haraway, Donna Jeanne
1991 A Cyborg Manifesto. In Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge.

1997 Fetus: The Virtual Speculum in the New World Order. In Modest : feminism and technoscience. New York; London: Routledge.
Law, John, and Annemarie Mol
2002 Complexities : Social Studies of Knowledge Practices. Durham: Duke University Press.
Dumit, Joseph, and Gary Lee Downey
1997 Cyborgs & Citadels : Anthropological Interventions in Emerging Sciences and Technologies. Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research Press.
Gandy, Matthew
2005 Cyborg Urbanization: Complexity and Monstrosity in the Contemporary City. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research Volume 29(1 March 2005):26–49.
Gray, Chris Hables
2003 Posthuman Soldiers in Postmodern War. Body & Society 9(4):215-226.

2000 Cyborg citizen : politics in the posthuman age. New York: Routledge.
Saunders, Barry F.
2008 CT suite : the work of diagnosis in the age of noninvasive cutting. Durham: Duke University Press.
Latour, Bruno
1983 Give Me a Laboratory and I will Raise the World. In Science Observed: Perspectives on the Social Studies of Science. K. Knorr Cetina and M. Mulkay, eds. Pp. 141-170. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi, Singapore: SAGE Publications. Reprinted in Biagioli, Science Studies Reader, and available on Latour's personal website: http://www(dot)bruno-latour(dot)fr/
B. Collectivities, Companion Species & Comparisons
Callon, Michel, and John Law
1997 After the Individual in Society: Lessons on Collectivity from Science, Technology and Society. Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers canadiens de sociologie Vol. 22(No. 2, (Spring, 1997)):165-182. Available on Callon's personal website. http://www(dot)csi(dot)mines-paristech(dot)fr/Perso/Callon/
Haraway, Donna Jeanne
1991 Simians, Cyborgs and Women : the Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge.
See especially: The Contest for Primate Nature: The Daughters of Man-the-Hunter in the Field, 1960-80; and The Past is the Contested Zone: Human Nature and Theories of Production and Reproduction in Primate Behaviour Studies.

1997 feminism and technoscience. New York ; London: Routledge. See chapter on Modest Witness.

2003 The companion species manifesto : dogs, people, and significant otherness. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press.

2008 When species meet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Strum, Shirley C., and Linda Marie Fedigan
2000a Changing Views of Primate Society: A Situated North American Perspective. In Primate Encounters: Models of Science, Gender, and Society. S.C. Strum and L.M. Fedigan, eds. Pp. 3-51. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Despret, Vinciane, and Jocelyne Porcher
2007 Etre Bête. Arles: Actes Sud.
Wynne, Brian
1996 May Sheep Safely Graze? A Reflexive View of the Expert-Lay Knowledge Divide. In Risk, environment and modernity: towards a new ecology. S. Lash, B. Szerszynski, and B. Wynne, eds. Theory, culture & society. London, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Franklin, Sarah
2007 Dolly mixtures : the remaking of genealogy. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press.
Law, John and Annemarie Mol
2008 ‘The Actor-Enacted: Cumbrian Sheep in 2001” available at http://heterogeneities(dot)net/publications/LawMol2008ActorEnacted.pdf
Callon, Michel
1986 Some elements of a sociology of translation: domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St Brieuc Bay. In Power, action and belief: a new sociology of knowledge? J. Law, ed. Pp. 196-223. London: Routledge. Also available on Callon's personal website: http://www(dot)csi(dot)mines-paristech(dot)fr/Perso/Callon/
Mitchell, Timothy
2002 Rule of experts : Egypt, techno-politics, modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press. See “Can the Mosquito Speak?”
Serres, Michel
2007 The Parasite. Minneapolis ; London: University of Minnesota Press.
Latour, Bruno
2009 Will non-humans be saved? An argument in ecotheology*. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 15(3):459-475. Also available on his website.
Classic approaches – collectivities outside the language of science & technology
Lévi-Strauss, Claude
1966 The Savage Mind. [Chicago]: University of Chicago Press. See especially, “The Science of the Concrete” and “The Logic of Totemic Classification”
Lienhardt, Ronald Godfrey
1961 Divinity and Experience. The religion of the Dinka. Clarendon Press: Oxford. See especially, “Introduction – section on Dinka and their cattle”
Nicholas, Ralph W.
1981 The Goddess Śītalā and Epidemic Smallpox in Bengal. The Journal of Asian Studies 41(1):21-44.
Castro, Eduardo Batalha Viveiros de
2004 Exchanging Perspectives: The Transformation of Objects into Subjects in Amerindian Ontologies. Common Knowledge 10(3, Fall 2004):463-484.
Stengers, Isabelle
2011 Comparison as a matter of concern. Common Knowledge 17(1):48-64.
See also the rest of the special issue of Common Knowledge in which this article is published: “Comparative Relativism: S ymposium on an Impossibility” – includes articles by Strathern, Verran, Smith & others.
Povinelli, Elizabeth A.
2001 Radical Worlds: The Anthropology of Incommensurability and Inconceivability. Annual Review of Anthropology 30:319-334.
Law, John
2007 “Actor Network Theory and Material Semiotics,” version of 25th April 2007, available on Law's personal website, at http://www. ics.pdf
Callon, Michel, Pierre Lascoumes, and Yannick Barthe
2009 Acting in an uncertain world : an essay on technical democracy. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Latour, Bruno
2005 Reassembling the social : an introduction to actor-network- theory. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.


Running Head: Posthumanism
Posthumanism — Is the post-human a new departure, or is it merely creative rebranding?
[Name of the writer]
[Name of the institution]
Posthumanism — Is the post-human a new departure, or is it merely creative rebranding?
Recent years have witnessed a much debate on post-humanism as a subject in various areas of social sciences. This debate has also become a basis for question that whether the post-human is a new departure or it is merely a creative rebranding. Post-humanism has become a subject in discussions in medicine as the scope of technological and genetic exploitation and bodily development. Nevertheless, it has had small consideration in the debate of adult education and lifelong learning. This paper is using post-humanism neither to just refer to a gathering after humanism, nor to refer to those who advocate a utopian future of genetically modified embodied technologies. Instead this paper is trying to find whether the post-human a new departure, or it is merely creative rebranding.
Problematising Nature and Man
Post-humanism, in fact, speaks about a performance that deconstructs the disconnection of subjects and objects and, with that, the spotlight on the human issue as either a representative of an essentialised human character or in a state of constant is receiving more attention. Levi-Strauss (1969) sees a person as a biological being and social individual. "Among his responses to external or internal stimuli, some are wholly dependent upon his nature, others upon his social environment." (Levi-Strauss 1969, 3) Nevertheless, it is also an issue that the deconstruction needs a subject and object to deconstruct. This understanding is helpful to assume that post-human is not a new departure, but merely a creative rebranding. It is significant then that the ‘post-` of the post-human is not considered as ‘anti-`. Levi-Strauss is of the view that culture is not simply contrasted to life nor superimposed upon it, but in one way serves as alternate for life.
"If this general distinction is relatively easy to establish, a twofold difficulty emerges when it has to be analysed. An attempt might be made to establish a biological or social cause for every attitudes, and a search made for the mechanism whereby attitudes, which are cultural in origin, can be grafted upon a successfully integrated with forms of behaviour which are themselves biological in nature." (Levi-Strauss 1969, 4)
Cyborgs and Complexities
It is a difference of opinion that the attempt to collect many actants seeks to provoke hardness to the thing to be enacted. Very simply, it is an argument that pursues a focus on ontology rather than representation. Nevertheless, the attention on ontology is not human- or subject-centric, but points to the embarrassment of the human and non-human, because without the non-human, humans wo...

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