The Media’s Role In Resolving Conflict After The 9/11 Attack (Essay Sample)
My modules is media theory and research，‘Media, Crisis and Composure’ ：Times of crisis and war test many of our assumptions and ideas about how the media operate, and for whom. Questions of freedom of information, security, propaganda etc. become acute. In this session we look at the history of media and information management in times of war and crisis, and also consider some of the ways in which the news in particular operates to produce a public understanding of conflict and traumatic events. We shall consider the apparently paradoxical situation that as economic and social institutions the mainstream media flourish in times of stability and predictability, while at the same time it is crisis, or at the least the extra-ordinary event, that the (news) media depend upon to attract an audience. We shall also explore the impact on war and crisis reporting of globalisation and technological change.This is my week 9 ’s topic，i want to write a paper on this subject，i have no idea about my topic，but i will give you some readings that you can draw up a title of your own according to those readings. I hope you can give me an outline first, for example,
1.set up main argument
2.why it matters
3.what going to do
1.review what others say
2.perhaps one theorist/article/theory
test the thesis, perhaps with one key alternative approach/article/theorist or case study
synthesis maybe with different angle cases study, theorist
hi，do you have any question about my requirement？and what time can i have an outline
there are reading list related to my topic：
Cottle, S. (2011). Taking global crises in the news seriously: Notes from the dark side of globalization. Global Media and Communication, 7(2), 77-95.
Sanz, E., & Stančík, J. (2014). Your search–‘Ontological Security’–matched 111,000 documents: An empirical substantiation of the cultural dimension of online search. New Media & Society, 16(2), 252-270.
Allan, S. (2006) Online News: Journalism and the Internet Maidenhead: Open UP
Andén-Papadopoulos, K., & Pantti, M. (2013) ‘Re-Imagining Crisis Reporting: Professional Ideology of Journalists and Citizen Eyewitness Images’ Journalism 14(7), 960-77
Baudrillard, Jean (2001) "The Spirit of Terrorism" Le Monde 2 November [available online; see also The Spirit of Terrorism Trans. Chris Turner, London: Verso, 2003]
Cottle S (2009) Global Crisis Reporting: Journalism in the Global Age Open UP
Cottle, Simon (2014) ‘Rethinking Media and Disasters in a Global Age: What's changed and why it matters’ War, Media and Conflict 7(3), 3-22
Doane, Mary Ann (1990) ‘Information, Crisis, Catastrophe’ in Logics of Television: Essays in Cultural Criticism, ed. Patricia Mellencamp. Bloomington: Indiana UP
Gillespie, Marie & Ben O’Loughlin (2010) ‘News Media, Threats and Insecurities: An Ethnographic Approach’ Cambridge Review of International Affairs 22/4, 667-85
Harindranath, R. (2011) ‘Performing terror, anti-terror, and public affect: Towards an analytical framework’ Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 25(2), 141-51
Hoskins, Andrew (2006) ‘Temporality, Proximity and Security: Terror in a Media-Drenched Age’ International Relations 20
Hoskins, Andrew and Ben O’Loughlin (2010) War and Media: The Emergence of Diffused War Cambridge: Polity
Kellner, Douglas (2004) ‘9/11, Spectacles of Terror and Media Manipulation’ Critical Discourse Studies 1/1, pp. 41-64 (available online from Kellner’s webpage)
Liebes, Tamar and Zohar Kampf (2009) ‘Performance Journalism: The Case of Media’s Coverage of War and Terror’ The Communication Review 12(3), 139-49
Livingstone, Steven (2011) ‘The CNN effect reconsidered (again)’ Media, War & Conflict 4(20), 20-36
Madger, Ted (2003) ‘Watching What We Say: Global Communication in a Time of Fear’ in Daya Thussu and Des Freedman, eds, War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 London: Sage, pp.28-44 (available from the publisher’s website)
Matheson, Donald, and Stuart Allan (2013) ‘New Wars, New Reporting’ in Digital war reporting Cambridge, Polity.
Nacos, Brigitte et al (2011) Selling Fear: Counter-terrorism, the Media and Public Opinion University of Chicago Press.
Seib, Philip (2013) ‘Delivering War to the Public: Shaping the Public Sphere’ in Selling War: The Role of the Mass Media in Hostile Conflicts… ed. J. Seethaler et al, pp.1-14
Stabile, Carol A. and Deepa Kumar (2005) ‘Unveiling Imperialism: Media, Gender and the War on Afghanistan’ Media, Culture & Society 27, 765–82
Taylor, M. Philip (2003) ‘Journalism under Fire: The Reporting of War and International Crisis’ in Simon Cottle, ed, News, Public Relations and Power, London: Sage, 63-80.
Zhang, Shixin Ivy (2013) ‘The New Breed of Chinese War Correspondents: Their Motivations and Roles, and the Impact of Digital Technology’ Media, War & Conflict, 6(3), 311-25.
THE MEDIA’S ROLE IN RESOLVING CONFLICT AFTER THE 9/11 ATTACK
Date of Submission
One of the features defining the modern world is conflict. Since the Cold War ended, a large number of conflicts have been recorded, with a majority of them, resulting in deaths and suffering for millions of individuals. Although there has been a rise in conflicts witnessed across the globe, there is little information about how such conflicts arise. The wars that occur between nations can be explained in geopolitical terms. However, internal conflicts are difficult to assess mainly because of the lack of information concerning ethnic tension, and instability among societies, which eventually lead to organized violence. Perhaps the lack of understanding is brought about by the inconsistency in the approach to media coverage of conflicts worldwide. It is well known that some political significance of conflicts, influences the response from the superior governments (Puddephatt 2006, p. 6). As a result, such influences affect how the media cover conflicts across nations.
Nonetheless, the media can also be blamed for giving some conflicts more priority over others. Despite that, one factor that seems to be universal is the fact that the media pays close attention to the concerns of their domestic audience whose attention can only be engaged when they are offered a point of identification. These audiences need to have a better understanding of the entire picture before they pick sides. This means that the media should not only focus on the combatants but the entire community as well. Media coverage has more power and influence that the will of governments. It is because of the effects that the media has on citizens that make political parties feel the need to gain control over media houses more specifically broadcast media. The control over the media deprives them of their freedom to convey the truth about events and limits their coverage of particular conflicts. In turn, the entire community is influenced by the parties through the media. However, individuals should be able to receive the entire information without bias. The media should have the freedom to gather information on their own and freely convey such information to individuals without taking sides. By freely investigating conflicts and diving deep into their root causes, the media can force the concerned individuals or governments to take a significant U-turn. Doing so will empower media houses to advocate for peace and expose individuals or parties which encourage conflicts. Hence, the media plays an essential role in influencing the masses and can be used to resolve conflicts rather than for political influence.
Intensification of Media in a Global Context.
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