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SHORT ESSAYS GRST 335. Greek and Roman. The Lion of Babylon Statue. History Essay (Essay Sample)




These papers are very specifically organized, and so it is imperative that you follow the instructions below. The objective of these assignments is to help you familiarize yourself with the different types of material that we use to construct the history of the ancient world.   Assignment #1 Your first assignment for this course is an informational paper. The objective of this paper is to introduce you to research in this field and to help you practice summarizing and paraphrasing information in your own words. For this paper, you will choose an archaeological site or an ancient city that has been explored by scholars and you will present a short 3-4 page summary that answers the following questions: a) Which cultures lived in/used the site? b) When was the site in use? When did it start? When did it end? c) What kind of scholarly work has been done for this site, and who has done this work. What is the modern or alternate name for the site?  d) What kind of artifacts and/or texts have been found? e) Indicate what one or two of the most significant finds have been and why they are important. You may want to start thinking about what you might right about for your second paper.  For this paper, you must use five sources. Three of these sources must be secondary sources, and two can be tertiary sources. Here are some sample choices. You may choose from this list, or you may choose another site, as long as you clear it with me.   Ephesus   Troy Sardis    Miletus Hattusha   Çatal Höyük    Uruk     Ur Nippur    Persepolis Sardis    Jericho Thebes    Saqqara Heliopolis   Memphis Elephantine   Babylon  Ashur    Carchemish Karum    Nineveh Mari    Ugarit Byblos    Harran Giza    Carthage   Some good places to start include your textbook, The University of Chicago Oriental Institute Website, and encyclopediae such as Michael Avi-Yonah, Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sites in the Holy Land and Eric Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. 2  There is also a great journal called Near Eastern Archaeology which is a popular magazine on Near Eastern archaeology (available through the library system). And, finally, you can always come and ask me.  Instructions for the format are found below.  Assignment #2: This essay should build on the first one. For this paper, you will choose either a  a physical artefact (such as a statue or a building) or a lengthy written text (such as the Epic of Gilgamesh). You may also look at inscriptions. Essentially, choose something that came from the site you researched. You may also choose to explore a particular problem.  PAPER STRUCTURE: This paper will be structured like any other normal thesis-driven essay your write.  Therefore, it should have an introduction with a thesis, a body, and a conclusion. Your thesis will revolve around the significance of the object you choose – what is the significance of the artefact to understanding Mesopotamian or Egyptian (or any other relevant ancient civilization’s) history? What is its relationship to the site you chose?  This paper should be 5-7 pages long. Each paper will have two parts. In the first part of the paper (no more than 2-3 pages), you will introduce the artefact or text; you will describe it; you will indicate where and when it was found; you will discuss which culture it comes from; and you will indicate where it lives at present (including the museum or library number). You will also indicate – if you find any information about this – whether there is any controversy surrounding the object (is a country trying to get it back; does anyone think it is a forgery; are there arguments about translating it?).   A note about description – your description of an art object will be about two paragraphs long. Your description of a lengthy text will be a BRIEF summary of the contents. For an inscription, you can include the translation, but if it takes more than half a page, this should be considered extra to your page count.   The second part of the paper is where you discuss the significance of the artefact. This section should refer back to the thesis you set up in the introduction – and this is where you discuss the artefact. For example, does the inscription tell us about daily life? If so, what does it say? Is a goddess presented in a particular way? Why? What does this tell us? We will discuss how to read these sources in class.  APPROACHING THIS ASSIGNMENT:  STEP 1:  Read Kishlansky’s article “How to read a document” in Mark Kishlansky, Sources of the West, (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), xi-xix. [on Reserve]    3  STEP 2: Choose an object, text, or inscription. There are several places that you can go to choose something: books on reserve in the library; other books in the library; your textbooks; or one of the websites I have provided. Please be very careful about websites – particularly in relation to Ancient Egypt.  STEP 3: Using the books in the library, the websites provided, and journal searches, you need to research the objects.  You will need to find some of the practical information about the objects, and you will also need to read what historians have to say about the significance of the artefacts. You are required to look at least 5 secondary sources in addition to the primary source (for each). These can be journal articles or books. You may also use ARTSTOR as a source, but it is extra to the four sources, since it provides very little information.  STEP 4: Once you have done the research, you need to start writing. You are welcome to come and see me along the way – I will happily read drafts and discuss them with you.   This assignment should be approximately 5-7 pages long. Both assignments must be doublespaced and typed in 12-point Times or Times New Roman Font, or neatly and LEGIBLY handwritten.  Margins should be 1” on all sides. You should have a separate cover page which includes the title of your paper. It should also include your name, the date, and the course number. All of your pages except the cover page should be numbered.   For citing all material, you need to use footnotes/endnotes, which is the citation preferred style in Classics. This style includes a bibliography on a separate last page. Please note that traditional endnotes/footnotes system is also known as the Chicago style or the Turabian style. If you are uncertain how to use this system, please see me as soon as possible for help. You can also check out the library website.   If you include pictures, you need to indicate where these come from – remember, a picture, like an idea, belongs to someone else! These should go in an appendix at the back of the paper – not in the text – and this page (or pages) does not count in your page count. I do encourage you to include pictures – it makes things clearer for both of us.   STEP 5:   REVISE, REVISE, REVISE, REVISE, REVISE, REVISE!   PRACTICALITIES: A. Grading of the Assignments: When I grade, I use four basic sets of criteria. This helps me organize my thoughts – but it also allows me to give you feedback to help you improve your papers. Please see the syllabus for the university’s grading scale.   4  You will be assessed in the following categories:   Precise Response to the Task: Analysis as opposed to summary  [Do you have a thesis?] For the first paper – have you answered the questions? Clarity and depth of thought: How has the material been processed and presented? Are there arguments? Coherence and Organization:  Was the paper well organized? Did it flow together? Technical Requirements:  Footnotes, spelling, adherence to instructions.  B. Academic Integrity: Academic integrity is vital to the university atmosphere of open discussion, interaction, and intellectual trust. Academic dishonesty, or the violation of academic integrity, occurs with any form of plagiarism, cheating, or in relation to the other infractions as defined in the University Calendar (4.11 and specifically 4.11.4 for a definition of plagiarism). Be aware that this is something that I feel extremely strongly about, and any violations will be reported and punished to the extent allowable by university guidelines. If you have any concerns, or are uncertain about what constitutes plagiarism, please come and see me BEFORE you had the assignment in.  C. Places to Start: Reference/Map Section: ARTSTOR Roaf, Michael, Cultural atlas of Mesopotamia and the ancient Near East (New York: Facts on File, 1990) DS 69.5 R63 1990 [map] Sasson, Jack, Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1995) DS 57 C55 1995 V.1-4  Online: British Museum (London): http://www(dot)britishmuseum(dot)org/ Egyptian Museum (Cairo): http://www(dot)egyptianmuseum(dot)gov(dot)eg/ Hattusha (Boğazköy, Turkey): http://www(dot)hattuscha(dot)de/ Iraq Museum International: http://www(dot)baghdadmuseum(dot)org/ Israel Museum (Jerusalem): http://www(dot)english(dot)imjnet(dot)org(dot)il/HTMLs/Museum_Hours.aspx?c0=13185&bsp=12790 Israeli Antiquities Authority: http://www(dot)antiquities(dot)org(dot)il/ Louvre (Paris): http://www(dot)louvre(dot)fr/llv/oeuvres/liste_departements.jsp?bmLocale=en Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York): http://www(dot)metmuseum(dot)org/Works_of_Art/index.asp Oriental Institute (Chicago): http://oi(dot)uchicago(dot)edu/ Royal Ontario Museum: http://www(dot)rom(dot)on(dot)ca/  Good Places to start Aldred, Cyril, The Egyptians, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1998) Bertman, Stephen, Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia, (Oxford: Oxford, 2003) 5  Chavalas, Mark, The Ancient Near East : historical sources in translation, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2006) Curatola, Giovanni, Art and Architecture of Mesopotamia (New York: Abbeville, 2007) Dunstan, William, The Ancient Near East, (Belmont: Thomson and Wadsworth, 1998) Kishlansky, Mark, Sources of the West, (New York: Harper Collins, 1991) Lichtheim, Miriam, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 3 Volumes, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973-80) Pritchard, James, The Ancient Near East, 2 volumes, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958)  Snell, Daniel, ed., A Companion to the Ancient Near East, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2005) Vassilika, Eleni, Egyptian Art, (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995)   D. Some Sample Choices Artwork The Uruk Vase The Winged Bulls of Nineveh The Apadana Reliefs at Persepolis King Tutankhamen’s tomb King Akhenaton [statue]  Texts: Book of the Dead Code of Hammurabi Babylonian Flood Story Genesis Mesopotamian Treaties Aramaic Papyri Aramaic inscriptions Amarna Letters  
So this assignment is the "Assignment #2" section and the requirements should all be there, the other document is the feedback she gave me so that might help you out. Thanks a lot!


The Lion of Babylon Statue
Babylon was the greatest kingdoms in Mesopotamia in ancient times. It was founded around 2300 BC. It was a very important kingdom since it hosted the great river the Euphrates and it was amongst the successful kingdoms at the time. The Lion is up to date the most significant animal in Babylon, modern-day Iran. It is present in Iraq's coat of arms where it acts as supporting material. It represents the fighting spirit of Babylon from ancient times. The Lion of Babylon is one of the most noticeable artifacts in Babylon. It is one of the archeological discoveries made by a German missionary in 1876 around Babil gardens in Iraq.
It was first built by the famous king of Babylon Nebuchadnezzar 11 around the 605-562 BC during an era of war between the Babylonians and the Hittites. Nebuchadnezzar built it after Babylon and had won against the Hittites. He wanted to change all the artwork around the country from the Arabic artwork to more legendary and detailed artwork that depicted their struggles and resilience during the civilization era. Nebuchadnezzar was a lion Hunter and he had a great appreciation of lions. The depiction of a lion on the statue was a clear sign of power and royalty among the Babylonians. The statue is a window to understanding more about ancient Babylonia or even further, Mesopotamia.

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