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Pages:
8 pages/≈2200 words
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Level:
Chicago
Subject:
History
Type:
Essay
Language:
English (U.S.)
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Topic:

Contents and Impacts of the 1969 White Paper on Canada's First Nations (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
Pick one these topics 1. Consider the immigrant experience portrayed in John Marlyn, Under the Ribs of Death (a work of fiction) with that in Tara Singh Bains and Hugh Johnston, The Four Quarters of the Night: The Life Journey of an Emigrant Sikh (personal recollections). What is different and what is similar about these portrayals? 2. What did the Trudeau government's 1969 “Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy” (the ‘White Paper') propose for Canadian native peoples and what did the government hope to accomplish with this policy? How was it received and what impact did it have? J.R. Miller, Skyscrapers Hide the Heavens (section 3), or another overview history “Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy” (1969) – this paper is in the UTM library, but it is also available on line through the library catalogue and elsewhere on the internet Indian Chiefs of Alberta, Citizens Plus Alan C. Cairns, Citizens Plus: Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian State¬ 3. Why did the Maritime economy decline in the period from Confederation to the 1920s? Was Confederation itself the cause? Kenneth Norrie and Douglas Owram, A History of the Canadian Economy Kris Inwood, ed., Farm, Factory and Fortune: New Studies in the Economic History of the Maritime Provinces T.W. Acheson, “The Maritimes and Empire Canada” in Canada and the Burden of Unity, ed. David J. Bercuson Ernest R. Forbes, Aspects of Maritime Regionalism, 1867-1927, CHA booklet Volume 36 4. What exactly was the ‘Women's Liberation' movement in Canada, and why did it arise when it did? Brandt, Black, Bourne, and Fahrni, Canadian Women: A History (preferably 3rd edition, 2011) Nancy Adamson, “Feminists, Libbers, Lefties, and Radicals: The Emergence of the Women's Liberation Movement”, in Joy Parr, ed., A Diversity of Women: Ontario, 1945-1980 Bryan D. Palmer, Canada's 1960s: The Ironies of Identity in a Rebellious Era Students are required to write a research essay of about 2000 to 2500 words (eight to ten pages) on one of the topics listed below. The essays are due in class Tuesday June 5 (by 8:00 pm). Late papers will be penalized 3% per weekday late. Papers should be double-spaced, with minimum one-inch margins, numbered pages, and a title page. Essays must have a bibliography of works consulted (even if not quoted), and proper references (Chicago Style, either footnotes or endnotes) that show the source of specific quotations or ideas. Research in formally published academic literature, much of which is available on-line through the library catalogue, is essential for this assignment. Other reputable on-line sources are also acceptable, if properly cited. Informal on-line reference works such as Wikipedia, however, should not be cited; they may be used to gain a basic understanding of the topic, but they should not be considered reliable authorities. The Canadian Encyclopedia, which includes articles on numerous people and events in Canadian history, is available on-line at http://www(dot)thecanadianencyclopedia(dot)com; it is a formally published reference work, which can be cited. The recommended sources listed below for each topic are not, strictly speaking, required, but they are strongly recommended. Some focus closely on the topic, while some present the topic in broader historical context; some have particular points of view, or arguments, while some are more descriptive. Only by considering historical problems from multiple angles can one properly understand their complexity. Good essays can be written using only the sources listed, provided the material is carefully read and analyzed, but top-notch essays will usually require further research. Advice on how to find additional sources can be obtained from either the instructor or the TA. The course textbook can also be useful. Since it is a distillation of other published material, it should not be cited as a formal source, but it can be a starting point for both facts and interpretations. Check the index at the back of the book for the main subject of the essay, such as “New France - status of women”. The textbook's CD-ROM has a short list of further readings for each chapter. I will send additional page files on Monday source..
Content:
Struggling for Right to Self-Determination
Contents and Impacts of the 1969 White Paper on Canada`s First Nations
Introduction
In 1969, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and his Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chretien, released a policy paper entitled the "Statement of the Government of Canada on Indian Policy;, proposing to end the special legal relationship between the Aboriginal peoples and the Canadian state thereby dismantling the Indian Act. The policy paper became known as the 1969 white paper.
In this paper, the contents of the 1969 white paper and its impacts to the Aboriginal peoples in the country will be explored. The 1969 white paper was considered a product of its time and although it aimed to establish policies for integrative development in relation to the Aboriginal peoples of the country, they were overwhelmingly opposed to the said policy paper. This paper will argue that the relationship and treatment of the federal government towards the Aboriginal peoples should be based on the respect for the right to self-determination of the latter. Any policy affecting the Aboriginal peoples should be scrutinized along this line of argument.[See Universal Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007.]
The 1969 White Paper: A brief historical background
In the parlance of Canadian legislature, a policy paper is called a white paper. However, Aboriginal peoples, also known as the First Peoples or the First Nations, claim that this term refers to racial politics dominated by whites. During the 1960s, the civil rights movement in the United States, which put public attention to intense discrimination and racism against African-Americans and other minorities, pushed the First Nations to question inequality and discrimination in the country. It was during this period that the federal government saw that the Aboriginal peoples across the country face serious economic, political and socio-cultural barriers that include poverty, higher infant mortality rate compared to non-indigenous Canadians, lower life expectancy, and lower levels of education.
Thus, in 1963, the federal government commissioned Harry B. Hawthorn, an anthropologist from the University of British Columbia, to investigate the social situation of the First Nations in the country. The report, entitled "A Survey of the Contemporary Indians of Canada: Economic, Political, Educational Needs and Policies;, concluded that the Aboriginal peoples in Canada are "citizens minus" - they are the most disadvantaged and marginalized population in the country. Hawthorn points to the years of failed government policy to integrate the First Nations to the wider population. Such policy includes the residential school system which only left the students unprepared to participate in a wider economic and socio-political milieu. In this case, the report proposed that the Aboriginal peoples be considered as "citizens plus" - they should be gradually assimilated to...
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