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What is external validity? (Essay Sample)

Instructions:
Application: External Validity You now know that validity helps tell you if an experiment measures what you think it measures. In the Discussion for this week, you addressed one of the internal threats to validity, that is, confounding variables. This Application Assignment will challenge you on external threats to validity. Generalization is the underlying issue in external validity. If a research study is only valid for the sample used in the study, it is not very helpful to the study of psychology. In the example given in the Discussion, students tried different study strategies. Suppose you were struggling with a concept in a training class at work and wanted to try a study strategy. Imagine that the Instructor in the Discussion solved the internal validity problem and found that study Strategy 1 worked better than study Strategy 2. Remember that your Instructor's study included a population of online students. You assume that the results of this study will generalize to your training class at work. However, a replication of this study found that study Strategy 1 only works well for online students in an undergraduate program. It cannot be generalized to your in-class training course at work. Therefore, it does not generalize across settings. The questions in this week's Application Assignment will help you think through generalizations as well as replications, both of which relate to external validity. To prepare for this assignment: - Review the assigned pages in Chapter 13 of the course text. - Review the PowerPoint for Chapter 13 (optional). The assignment: (2–3 pages) (1) What, exactly, is external validity (use your own words)? (2) What are the two main types of generalizations and the issues associated with each type? (3) Explain the four different types of replications and the purpose of each. Include for each an original psychological study example (i.e., make up your own) that is different for each type of replication (that is, don't build on the same example). Plan to devote a short paragraph for each. (4) Briefly explain how replications relate to external validity Note: Assume that random assignment took care of any potential differences in the groups and therefore group differences are NOT a potential confound. Support your Application Assignment with specific references (in the form of citations in APA style) to all resources used in its preparation. You will also need to provide a full Reference list. Submit your assignment to the Dropbox by Day 7. Save your Application as a ".doc" or ".rtf" file with the filename APP4+last name+your first initial. For example, Sally Ride's assignment filename would be "APP4RideS." Use the Submit an Assignment link, choose the Week 4: Application basket, and then add your Application as an attachment. Please proceed to the Test for Understanding. Here is the link to my chapter readings this week. http://books(dot)google(dot)com/books?id=tUT3baYBZicC&lpg=PA46&ots=O7qMseZ4s2&dq=9780840031976&pg=PA46#v=onepage&q&f=false source..
Content:
Running head: VALIDITY
Validity
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Question 1
What is external validity?
External validity is the extent to which the findings of a certain study can be generalized. This means that the findings of study of one population or setting which was randomly selected apply to the rest. Unfortunately , experiments using human beings use small samples got from one location thus one cannot be certain that the outcome applies to other people in different locations and have different features. External validity is very difficult to be achieved hence many scientists face a challenge in trying to prove that results of a certain experiment or findings represent the whole population in real life situations. In the real sense, if a research design has poor external validity, it won’t be satisfactory to many. Randomization is an important component of external validity (Bracht, Glass, 1998). Validity is an important factor to consider when determining outcome of a psychological test.
However, there are various risks associated with external validity. Some critics have argued that the time, place and also the people used in the study may not be suitable to be generalized. This means that the people selected for the study were not appropriate to be generalized or the place was so remote such that it would not represent the other locations.
Question 2:
Two main types of generalizations and issues associated with each.
A generalization is a principle or reasoning from facts that are universal to a more detailed and specific principle. The two types of generalization are; stimulus generalization and response generalization. Stimulus generalization is the likely hood to respond to stimuli which are the same as the original conditioned stimulus. e.g. if a dog is trained to run to the gate any time it hears a bang, when it is conditioned, it will respond to all, or variety of sounds that are the same as the bang. On the other hand, response generalization...
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