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Students 3-1 & 3-2 post Social Sciences Essay Paper (Essay Sample)


I need comments on a total of 4 students post. There is 3 students for 3-1 and 1 student for 3-2 the questions are different the students for 3-1 are Kara, Larry and Cynthia. The student for 3-2 is Kara I need in text citations with a reference page you can use the students references as the your articles. I have added the questions



 3 DQ 1 question     Identify three assessment tools. Explain how and when each of those tools could be used to inform the coaching relationship. Use scholarly sources to support your answers.

  The three assessment tools that can be used to assess clients are:

The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS: Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985)

Kara     The SWLS is a 5-item scale designed to measure cognitive judgments of life satisfaction. Respondents indicate how much they agree or disagree with each statement on a 7-point scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). The SWLS is a valid and reliable measure of life satisfaction that is suitable for use within a wide range of age groups and applications. Additionally, the satisfaction scale has shown sufficient sensitivity to be effective in the detection of change and the tracking of progress in terms of life satisfaction during the course of coaching interventions (Pavot, Diener, Colvin, & Sandvik, 1991).

The Leader Competency Inventory (LCI: Kelner, 1993)

The LCI is a self-report method for measuring an individual’s use of four specific dimensions of leadership – information seeking, conceptual thinking, strategic orientation, and service orientation. Respondents are asked to state the degree to which they have demonstrated or seen various behaviors. The LSI can be particularly beneficial in business and executive coaching to increase a leader’s impact, and to measure, strengthen and develop leadership skills.

The Leadership Skills Inventory (LSI: Karnes & Chauvin, 1985)

The LSI is a 56-item self-assessment designed primarily for leaders, encouraging them to assess their own abilities in relation to five dimensions of leadership: self-management skills, interpersonal communication skills, consulting skills for developing groups and organizations, and versatility skills. Clients are asked to respond using a 10 point scale ranging from “This skill is new to me” to “I can perform the skill well. I can teach others, too.” The LSI has shown concurrent and construct validity and is an effective assessment of leadership skills (Edmunds, 1998).


Houston.E.(2019). 38 Best Coaching Tools and Assessments To Apply With Clients.  Retrieved from

Larry    Hi Class,

Before I wrap up this past week, I want to let you all know how much I appreciated your participation last week. This is a high-level class, and every one of you has contributed content and personal reflections that reflects this coaching challenge. Not often, I have a group like you.

As we move into the next topic, I wanted to reiterate some of my feedback and opinions. Business coaching relationships can be complicated, especially when you are hired and paid by the organization. In a more traditional coaching relationship, there are two parties, the coach and the coachee. In many business and executive coaching engagements, you have three – the coach, coachee, and the organization. Herein lies the complication. Who is the coaching working for, and with whom is confidentiality owed too? I do not think there are any easy answers to resolving these potential conflicts except for one, and that is to have a well-written engagement contract that spells out those conflicts.

I keep it simple, and when entering an agreement with a company to coach one of their executives, I make it clear that my duty of confidentiality lies with the coachee. I will not share anything with the company that is not specifically agreed upon by my coachee. (Nothing).

I coach the executive, just like everyone else. The coaching conversation is the same. If in three weeks into the six-month engagement, my coachee tells me he/she is leaving the company, that is between the coachee and me. I will not even disclose if the coachee is even showing up for the sessions. Unless it is agreed upon.

One thing to consider is the impetus for the organization to hire a coach. My experience suggests it is not because the executive is having a problem – just the opposite – the executive is asking for a coaching contract as an additional executive perk. The executive is interested in exploring and expanding his/her horizon. What they want is someone unconnected to the company to talk with and share their dreams and ambitions. They want a coach – it is part of their compensation package.

Of course, the genesis of the coaching engagement is never one thing, and other coaches think differently about this. You will have to make up your mind.

One final thought, I think the very best coaches, the ones who realty serve their clients, transform their clients…… pick their clients. Not the other way around.


The Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory (MBTI: Myers, 1962)

The MBTI is a 93-item self-report assessment, providing a framework designed to measure personality preferences across four dimensions, namely:

The directing and receiving of energy i.e. extrovert or introvert

The taking in of information i.e. sensing or intuition

Decision-making i.e. thinking or feeling

Approaching the outside world i.e. judging or perceiving.

The MBTI provides valuable information, effectively giving coaches insights that can help build rapport, predict behavioral patterns, and to identify potential areas for growth and planning.

Understanding and utilizing personality preferences can assist clients in a variety of ways including increasing self-awareness, self-reflection and insight, understanding individual differences, improving teamwork, and decision-making skills (positivePsychology).

Process Evaluation Scale (PES)

The PES is a useful tool to assess coachee goal attainment. Respondents are asked to rate their current degree of goal achievement on a scale of 1 (not at all achieved) to 10 (fully achieved).

When taken regularly, for instance at the beginning of each session, average values can then be calculated across all defined goals for each client. The client’s success in attaining their individual goals can be understood in terms of progress and overall goal attainment (PositivePsychology).

Appreciative Inquiry

Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is an effective intervention that can provide opportunities for coaches to facilitate client learning processes more effectively. AI as an approach that allows a client to experience a process of transformation through the exploration and discovery of their strengths and positive potential.

The appreciative coaching approach develops a foundation for constructing transformative changes in a positive way; moving thinking and language away from a deficit (negative) orientation and toward more appreciative (positive) orientation.

The appreciative coaching approach can influence the client’s learning experience by deepening their appreciation of their unique contributions and accomplishments and creating sustainable solutions through collaborative discovery (Starkey, 2006).


Positive Psychology (2019). 38 Best Coaching Tools and Assessment to apply with clients. Retrieved from

Starkey, (2006)“How Assessment Data Can Inform Coaching.” Retrieved from

3-2      Research and choose an organization. Briefly describe the culture of the organization. Speculate what challenges the organizational culture may have on executive performance in the organization. Describe how specific aspects or challenges of the organization’s culture affect the way executives perform.

Kara      Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

The organizational structure in Walmart has a leadership position in the retail industry. Walmart has a hierarchical functional organizational structure. The main effect of Walmart’s hierarchical functional organizational structure is the ability of corporate managers to easily influence the entire organization. For example, new policies and strategies developed at the company’s corporate headquarters are directly passed on to regional managers down to the store managers.

According to Lombardo (2019), the downside of this corporate structure is that it has minimal support for organizational flexibility. The lower levels of the organizational structure cannot easily adjust business practices because of the lengthy communications and approval process involving the middle managers and corporate managers at Walmart’s headquarters.

Walmart’s organizational culture has four main components. These components guide employees’ behaviors, which determine organizational capacities to add value in the provision of retail service and related services to consumers. The cultural components are also identified as Walmart’s beliefs:

Service to customers, Respect for the individual , Strive for excellence, Action with integrity


Lombardo, J. (2019, February 15). Walmart: Organizational Structure & Organizational Culture. Retrieved from






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Kara says that the SWLS is a comprehensive five-item scale that helps measure cognitive judgments and allows us to determine whether or not a respondent agrees with a particular statement (Houston, 2019). It is an authentic, reliable and valid way to measure life satisfaction. As far as the Leader Competency Inventory is concerned, the student calls it a self-report method for measuring a person’s use of fur dimensions of leadership (service orientation, conceptual thinking, strategic orientation and information seeking).
Larry can be found appreciating the entire class for participating in the last week’s session. She calls it a high-level class where everyone got a chance to learn something new (Positive Psychology, 2019). Business coaching relationships, according to this student, are quite complex especially when we are hired by a top or reputed organization. Moving on, Larry says that she has always tried to keep things simple. When she entered the agreement to coach one of the executives, she made it clear that her duty would be kept confidential.
Cynthia is of the view that the Myer

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