3 pages/≈825 words
Psychology: Ivan Pavlov (Essay Sample)
Essays Note that you must answer a total of 4 short answer essay questions. The first two essays are required of everyone. Required: (15 points) Choose one person from the following list whom you feel played an important role in the history of psychology: Freud, Pavlov, Skinner, Maslow, or Piaget. Describe what that person did, the approximate time that this person lived, what makes their contribution important, and criticisms of their work or theoretical position. This essay question should contain 3 or more well-developed paragraphs containing at least 5 sentences each (approximately 250 - 300 words.) Required: (15 points) You are a psychologist interested in finding out how effective a new medication might be for treating depression. Describe a study you might conduct to reach some conclusions on this matter. Be sure to define the following terms and concepts, demonstrating your understanding of each as it relates to your study: hypothesis, random assignment of participants, independent variable, dependent variable, ethical guidelines. (No word limit but be sure to sufficiently explain your study, define these terms and use them in describing your study.) Select 2 of the following. (Each essay is worth 10 points for a total of 20 points). Your answers should be approximately 150 words and should address all parts of the question. Please select only 2 of the 3. 1. When your best friend hears that you are taking a psychology course, she asserts that psychology is simply common sense. Explain why your awareness of both the limits of everyday reasoning and the methods of psychological research would lead you to disagree with your friend's assertion. 2. Choose a behavior that you would like to modify or change using the principles of operant conditioning. Be sure to use and explain the following terms: operant conditioning, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, schedules of reinforcement, shaping and extinction. 3. David's history teacher asked him why so many German people complied with Hitler's orders to systematically slaughter millions of innocent Jews. David suggested that the atrocities were committed because the Germans had become unusually cruel, sadistic people with abnormal and twisted personalities. Use your knowledge of the fundamental attribution error and Milgram's research on obedience to highlight the weaknesses of David's explanation. source..
PSYCHOLOGY Name: Grade Course: Tutor`s Name: (01, December, 2010) Psychology The Ivan Pavlov (1894- 1936) was a Russian psychology. He played a very important role in the field of psychology. He researched on digestion psychology; leading to development of experimental model of learning called classical conditioning. He developed his research by studying salivating dog. He did this by implanting small pouches in dogs stomach, thus collecting secreted gastric juice produced when the dog start eating. He did this with his skills and experience gotten as a surgeon. He introduced a metronome that clicked thus conditioning the dogs to salivate. This helped in development of conditioned reflexes and the field of classical conditioning. In his research, Pavlov used food as unconditioned stimulus that lead to unconditioned response that was salivating. He also used metronome as nonexcitatory element that acted as conditioned stimulus. He would ring the metronome before feeding the dogs. This made the dogs to start salivating when the metronome rings. Even after removing the food and ringing the bell alone, the salivating still continued. Thus, unconditioned stimulus and condition response become conditioned. According to Todes, (2002) Pavlov would slowly remove conditioned response, that is metronome and replace it with something else pairing it with food until the conditioned response do not appear. This is extinction of conditioned response. Later, he would reintroduce it resulting to dogs salivating. He termed this as spontaneous recovery. His work has been acknowledged by scholars as he pioneered the study of psychology. This has lead to influence the modern field of behavio...
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