8 pages/≈2200 words
Poli Sci (Essay Sample)
Please Meet the page requirement!!! Answer 3 questions from the following selection of choices. Your answer should not be more than 3 pages double-spaced (12 font) per question (9 pages max.). Please be certain to answer all parts of each question and indicate which question(s) you are answering. Each answer should have an introduction and conclusion. Be certain you receive a received email from Kevin. Reminder that if using outside sources you must include in-text citations and a reference list in APA format, your paper will not be marked without sources being cited. Information that is directly quoted, statistics, etc. from the text also require citation, information from the slides/lectures do not require citation. If you are not certain ¨C CITE! 1. Local government has become more and more important in Canada as the country continues to urbanize. What are the main characteristics and functions of local municipal government in Canada? In the case of regional governance in Greater Vancouver, what was the impetus for the creation of the GVRD/Metro and how has the region utilized land use strategy throughout its history to support a regional ethos? Compare and contrast the regional government of Portland, Oregon and the regional government in Greater Vancouver. 2. The Canadian judiciary has changed in many ways since the Charter of Rights and Freedoms was included in the Constitution Act, 1982. Compare and contrast the Canadian judiciary, with a focus on the Supreme Court, pre-/post the Charter by using specific court cases to support your analysis. How has the notion of judicial review changed since 1982. Is the principle of respect for the rule of law still present within the judiciary ¨C what is meant by this concept? Identify the characteristics of each level of the Canadian judiciary and discuss the pros and cons of Canada¡¯s integrated court system? 3. How has the view of Canada internally and by other international actors evolved throughout its history with regards to its relationship with the global community? Discuss the phases of this evolution, including the influences and actors involved, leading to how the rest of the world and Canadians themselves view the country today. Be certain to focus on issues such as sovereignty, economics, military and security considerations in your answers and be as specific as possible. How has Canada¡¯s trade policy been used in its external relations post-Mulroney? source..
1). Canadian Local government
Canadian federalism recognizes three tiers of government: federal, provincial and local municipalities. Local governments and municipal authorities are more relevant than ever, because of increase in population and urbanization. In essence, urbanization puts a strain on resources and the infrastructure in various municipalities as they try to provide services in these communities. Local governments provide services to the public and as such there is a need for efficiency through proper governance. Local governments mostly the municipal authorities are below provinces in the administrative structure of Canada. Municipal authorities are similar in there structures and functions across various provinces in Canada (Bish &Clemens, 2008).
Provincial authorities may delegate responsibilities to municipal governments, whereby municipal authorities are those that have municipal responsibilities including local administration; they may differ according to the province or whether they are urban. Many municipal governments share less public expenditure because provinces are in charge of most public service resources. Moreover, the administrative structure allows provinces to shoulder more responsibility for education and social matters. However, they do not offer education and health programs.
Municipal authorities can be divided on the basis of territorial boundaries and responsibilities. Most municipal authorities are lower, single tier municipalities and are mandated with the provision of service delivery in specific territories. The second category is the upper tier which cover wide areas composed of numerous lower tier municipalities including, counties, regional municipalities or big urban centers as metropolitan municipalities (Bish &Clemens, 2008).
Lower tier municipalities provide services depending on local traditions and needs. Consequently, there public expenditures go into waste and water supply management, urban land management, transportation management, road maintenance, protection of people, property and creation of recreational facilities. Besides the provision of services, municipalities also deal with economic development, holding consultative meetings with the people and facilitating local elections.
Upper tier municipalities have jurisdictions across various local authorities and could be set up either for various purposes, an individual purpose or in the management of a region. Municipalities serving various purposes are tasked with decision making especially with choosing administrators and various professionals and can also endorse budgets. Special purpose authorities are mainly mandated in environmental protection and are headed by a Board of Directors. Metropolitan councils craft strategies on how to deal with issues affecting big metropolitan cities.
The metro GVRD/ Greater Vancouver Regional District in British Columbia is a metropolitan c...
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