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Social Sciences
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Ocean Pollution Issue: Causes and Solutions (Essay Sample)


Goal: To evaluate the leading cause and implications of an ocean issue and to find and evaluate a solution to address the root cause of the problem.

What to Do: Your ocean problem-solution report will include the following sections:

1. Issue and wicked problem: clearly identify and briefly describe the main problem that you will be addressing in your assignment. Explain why this issue is a wicked problem. Please note that this is the issue you defined in your cause-and-effect map.

2. Causes: Describe the human actions that have led to the ecological problem at hand and identify the root cause. Please note that the focus here should be on your causal thread (as identified in the cause and effect map), though you may refer to others as well to provide a more complete picture.

3. Effects: Evaluate the resultant implications of the issue in ecological, social, and economic realm to justify why action is needed.

4. Solution: In this section you will present and analyze a solution to address the root cause (focus on the root cause of your thread, as identified in the cause-and-effect map). Make sure to evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of solution and any potential challenges that may arise in the process of its implementation.

5. Conclusions & Recommendations: Provide a summary of your findings. Describe your recommendations: explain what actions need to be taken and why it is critical to take them to ensure the well-being of the planet and us.

6. Reference list: Reference list (of cited sources) should be provided in alphabetical order at the end of the assignment. Use a minimum of 7 references, and a minimum of 5 from academic journals. All references should be from reputable sources (e.g. websites such as NOAA, NASA); no Wikis, blogs, news releases, or encyclopedias.


This is a research paper and as such you are expected to use external sources and credit these sources in text by using in-text citations. Both in-text citations and reference list should follow the APA formatting style.

Write the report in your own words.

Submit a digital copy typed, single-spaced, 12-point font, with 1-1.25 inch margins to blackboard before 11:59pm on the day it is due.

The word limit for this report is between 1500 and 2000 words; do not exceed the word limit; the word limit does not include the list of references.

Include all 6 sections (see above) in your report and use section sub-headings.

Your report should be written in paragraphs, using full sentences. Do not use bullet points.


Ocean Pollution

Ocean Pollution Issue

Oceans cover the approximately 71% of the earth’s surfaces and harbors about 1 million species (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)). They contain valuable and beautiful ecosystems that are a source of numerous benefits, including fresh foods and careers for thousands of people living in the vicinity of the beaches. Oceans are sources of seafood such as finfish, marine mammals, crustaceans, reptiles, mollusks, and seaweed. In addition, several industries have been established as a result of the existence of these beautiful bodies. Tourism, oil companies, mariculture, and fishery are sectors that offer jobs to millions of individuals across the world (NOAA, 2011). Nevertheless, the oceans are not in peace as they appear to be. The world population has tremendously grown, which has been accompanied by a massive generation of waste products both from homes and industries. A large portion of such waste is being directed to the oceans, leading to severe destruction of marine ecosystems. Ocean pollution is a problem that has plagued various countries around the world for a long time now (Christofersen and Cummins, 2009). 

Causes of Ocean Pollution

The main sources of ocean pollution include nonpoint pollutants that originate from the big industries such as oil and sewerage companies. The other major sources of ocean pollution are nonpoint pollutants, which mainly consist of herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizers. They are referred to as nonpoint because they are not directly dumped into the ocean, but carried from the farms by surface runoff during the rainy days (Clair, & Cummins, 2009). Human-created wastes such as plastic products have severely affected marine life for a long time. The increased use of plastic products has resulted in a massive disposal problem due to their non-biodegradable nature.  Normally, plastic cans and papers take several years before they completely disappear. According to the United Nations Regional Information Center, about 12 million barrels of oil are used to manufacture approximately 102 billion plastic bags every year in the United States (Eriksen et al., 2014). Moreover, around 2.4 tons of plastic and bottles are disposed of annually all over the world.

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