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International Relations: Globalization (Essay Sample)

Instructions:

Answers these two essays questions and write two essays. I posted the required reading for these two problems. This is a take home exam please do your best, thx. You can use the outside sources but the main idea should based on the reading. The PPTs is the class discussion and you should also considered in your essays.
1. What is globalization? Argue whether globalization overall has been a negative or a positive for the global economy. Discuss who might gain and who might lose in your analysis. Also consider the globalization trilemma in your analysis.
2. From a theoretical perspective, what are the two main types of environmental problems? Choose a specific environmental issue that is an example of each type of environmental problem. Assess who benefits and who bears the cost. Identify solutions for each.

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Content:

International Relations
Student`s Name
Institutional Affiliation
International Relations
Question 1
Globalization refers to the process of interaction and integration that takes place among individuals, organizations, and governments worldwide. It entails a shift in the spatial scale of social organizations that join different communities (Baylis, Smith & Owens, 2017). Through globalization, organizations and countries gain international influence and begin operating on a global scale.
According to Irwin (2016), U.S. presidential candidates tend to brush free trade during elections and embrace it once elected. They soon realize that imposing new barriers would rip the existing agreements and eventually be self-destructive to society. In the same way, globalization has both positive and negative effects. Given a chance, some countries wish to stay out of the wave of globalization. Overall, the positive effects of globalization on the global economy outweigh the negative effects. International institutions like the IMF, World Bank, and WTO have been beneficial to the member countries. These institutions serve to constrain the behavior of wealthy nations and offer information and monitoring capabilities to enhance cooperation among the member countries (Milner, 2005). The global economy requires countries to work together towards addressing issues affecting trade. The three institutions have been instrumental in assisting the member countries in adopting market-friendly policies which have eased unnecessary tensions and created more market for goods and services.
Globalization has facilitated liberalization policies towards trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). Developing countries benefit from foreign capital and technology because it offers them the opportunity to develop economically. FDI also transfers skills from the developed nations to the developing ones which help improve economic output by allowing the developing countries to become more efficient. FDI also creates conditions where democracy and respect for human rights flourish. Investors, especially from the developing world, require countries to make adjustments regarding their governance as a requirement for investment. Eventually, as trade increases, democracy improves and makes the world a better place for all individuals.
Some problems require a global approach to address them. A single country can not sufficiently address issues like environmental degradation and pollution. Climate change is now a global phenomenon that requires a global solution. The increasing levels of affluence have led to local environmental improvement. As nations become wealthier, they tend to invest more into efforts aimed at conserving the environment. The opening up of markets improves efficiency in the production process and reduces pollution. Due to globalization, countries can come up together and collectively address these issues. The sharing of knowledge due to globalization has enabled countries to remain updated on modern ways of protecting the environment.
Countries have a comparative advantage in the production of goods and services. Globalization allows them to concentrate on the production of the goods and services they have a comparative advantage. For the goods that are expensive to manufacture locally, countries can acquire them at relatively low prices. The decrease in the prices of goods and services enables more individuals to afford products and services which further boosts trade. Further, globalization increases competition. The producers have to price their products and services competitively to remain in the market. The consumers end up getting high-quality products at lower prices.
The benefits of globalization are not uniform across the world. ...

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