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Developmental Symbiosis (Essay Sample)


. Environmental Errors
Using examples from anywhere in the animal kingdom except humans, discuss errors in development. The number of errors you discuss depends on the level of specificity, but you must include in your answer at least one gene-mediated error and one environmentally induced error. Define and describe the errors and explain how they are deleterious to the organism. Be specific; cite species, experimental and other evidence.
2. Developmental Symbiosis
Describe the mechanisms of developmental symbiosis and select an example that is not discussed in the text book. Explain how your selected EXAMPLE demonstrates developmental symbiosis and detail the life cycle changes. Identify the impact of this symbiosis on the organisms why is it an advantageous arrangement for the organisms and in what ways is it detrimental.


Development exam 3: Development biology

Environmental Errors: gene-mediated errors, and environmentally induced errors
One of the most important aspects in errors in development occurs through transgenic animals, which are genetically modified to have foreign genomes, and they then have different characteristics from the non-genetically modified. For instance cows can have foreign gene in order to produce more milk, but with less cholesterol. The Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer, embryonic stem-mediated transfer and DNA microinjection are the main forms of gene-mediated errors in animals. One of the applications of transgenesis is transferring genes to sheep and goats allowing their mammary glands to act as bioreactors for producing pharmaceutical proteins.
Embryonic Stem Cell-Mediate Gene transfer is a form of transgenesis, whereby stem cells are identified, isolated and then incorporated into the embryo of the host (Hoffman, n.d.). On the other hand, the Retrovirus-Mediated Gene Transfer occurs when there is transfer of retrovirsuses that carry genetic material in the form of RNA rather than DNA. The resulting organism is a chimera, which has tissues or parts with different genetic elements. The transfer of DNA into cells without carriers is DNA microinjection, and this is especially for large cells, with injection into muscles, tissues as well as the blood (Hoffman, n.d.). Even as the DNA gets incorporated into the genome of a host, there is a risk that the desired traits may not be achieved.
Even though, many animal species have different morphometric shapes, there is no agreement on the impact of environmental induced errors in the development of these shapes. The environment induces change through controlling the growth and development of animals including differentiation. For instance, the deve...
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