Development Exam (Essay Sample)
Please cite your sources as necessary. Citations should be internal, appearing in parentheses immediately after the appropriate sentence. Do not include a bibliography. Only work which you actually cite, needs to be listed. In other words, I do not need to see references, it is assumed that the class materials are referenced.
The grade will be based on:
1. Completion. Completed both questions, answering all parts of each assignment with no less than 250 wds each essay. (generally essays will not be significantly more than 300 words each). The deduction is based upon the per cent of work completed.
2. Errors in spelling /grammar may contribute to a deduction of up to 30%., for example if the writing is such that the meaning of the sentences is obscured.
3. Facts are correct and ideas are supported with references or supported rationale. Excessive use of unsupported information will result in up to a 30% deduction.
4. The essays are clearly are informed by the textbook and the terminology and complexity represent that of the textbook. Papers that are not demonstrating the students ability to read and comprehend the assigned chapters in the textbook, will result in up to a 30% deduction
According to the textbook, what are the specific characteristics of aging? For example, one characteristic to include is animal life cycle stage in which aging occurs. Make sure to include at least one molecular characteristic.
How do we recognize and quantify aging? Use examples to demonstrate individual characteristics of aging. For one characteristic, explain any research and the research question (you may use outside sources for this part of the question, but they are not required).
Consider one scientist (from Aristotle to the present) who has advanced our understanding of sex determination. Summarized his/her work, evidence, importance. What is one application of this biologist's work? What, if any, aspects of the work are no longer considered valid and why?
Argue that cancer is a disease of development. Cite the textbook. Make sure to include the theoretical relationship between cancer and stem cells.
Aging is a part of life and everybody must undergo the process of aging. Some of specific characteristics of aging include physical decrease in size observable through standing and sitting height. The skin experiences dramatic transformation such as wrinkling and deterioration, discoloration and a decrease in hair growth and hair loss. Most sense such as the sight, hearing change with age in most individuals. The sense of hearing is specifically affected by an inability to hear frequencies that are high while peripheral vision is lost and reduced clarity of differentiating colors. Additionally there is a decline in sensitivity to the senses of touch and smell. The body cells are characterized with a limited ability to undergo division whereby they stop growing at a certain age affecting important physiological functions in the body (Morgan et al., 2011)
The aging process is also characterized with transitions socially and emotionally that affect an individuals' lives through both physical and social losses (Otin et al., 2013). The progressive decrease in physiological integrity greatly contributes to the impairment of many functions that make an individual vulnerable to death. Genomic instability, proteostasis loss, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence and nutrient sensing that is not regulated are some factors that are the basis of aging. These factors interrelate and impact on an individual and the entire aging process. According to Gilbert (2014), developmental biology has provided a basis on developmental mechanisms through molecular, physiological, cellular, neurobiology and immunology among other biological aspects and has been important not only in growth but also in understanding the aging process.
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