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A Literature Review Analyzing Insect Adaptations to Fire (Essay Sample)


M7A1: Project: Term Paper
Term Paper Project Directions:
Your paper should examine a significant issue or problem around biodiversity taking into account multiple factors and perspectives. Examine the causes and implications for the future. You should examine possible solutions and the positive and negative impact these solutions will have at a local, regional and international level. The term paper is due in Module 7. 
The length needs to be 10-12 pages, (250 words per page is our standard, so that would be 2500+ words of text) do not count the title page or reference page.
The standard expectation for a science paper is 2+ academic references per page, does not include dictionary references for terms etc. Wikipedia, encyclopedias and blogs are not acceptable.
Use APA style references and in-text citations. EC Library page on APA style https://my(dot)excelsior(dot)edu/group/library/cite-sources
Font style and size: Acceptable for scientific publications fonts are use such as Times New Roman or Calibri size 11 or equivalent for the font. When in doubt check with your instructor.
Avoid plagiarism in your writing, even inadvertent plagiarism will be penalized. EC Library tutorial on plagiarism and citations: http://libguides(dot)excelsior(dot)edu(dot)vlib(dot)excelsior(dot)edu/copyright-plagiarism
The Excelsior College Library has many tools to help you get started on writing a research paper. Please use these in each stage of the process as we work through developing a topic, outline and other steps in the writing process.
By the end of this activity you will have submitted a thoughtful analysis of a current issue in biodiversity.
As you complete your term paper, please remember that it must include citations from primary sources (i.e., peer-reviewed journal articles) following the APA (American Psychological Association) format. You are not allowed to use secondary sources or Wikipedia as references. You will have access to numerous online scientific journals through the Excelsior College library.
Please keep the following questions in mind as you progress through this activity:
Was the agreed-upon topic thoroughly and adequately addressed?
Were all sides of the issue represented?
Were all of the instructions regarding format and submission followed?


A Literature Review Analyzing Insect Adaptations to Fire
Course Title:
A Literature Review Analyzing Insect Adaptations to Fire
It is often argued that fire serves as an environmental filter in that it selects functional traits and species, and reduces the variability of species within the ecosystem, affecting the function of the ecosystem as well as underlying services (Moretti et al., 2010). Fire has been a common phenomenon on Earth, and it has been influential on the development of life on Earth. Both animal and plant species have adapted to survive in high temperatures through a natural selection process. Through this process, animal and plant species have been changing their shape, size, as well as their ability to survive in various environmental conditions. The implication of this is that fire has been playing an integral role in shaping various ecosystems. In this regard, Parker, Clancy and Mathiasen (2006) assert that insects and fire are integrated, natural of North America's western forests. Indeed, many organisms have been able to develop the necessary characteristics that facilitate them to survive in either the absence or presence of fire. In this regard, it is worth noting that the extent of such adaptations varies in accordance with the type of ecosystem in question.
The disturbance that fire causes in the ecosystem is highly significant in sustaining, shaping and promoting some succession stages, and it contributes greatly to the living systems' dynamic nature (Thom, Daniels, Kobziar & Colburn, 2015). While some ecosystems have evolved greatly in the presence of fire, other ecosystems require fire in order to survive. On the same note, some organisms require fire in order to fulfill a particular requirement in their life cycle. For instance, some insects require fire so that it can create their habitats by burning or damaging trees. Fire can be beneficial to some insects at the expense of other insects. In this case, some insects are actually attracted to fire. Generally, the impact of fire on various forms of insects could have enormous implications for the general ecosystem. Indeed, some researchers propose that both pathogen and insect outbreaks occur mainly due to fire suppression (Engstrom, 2010). This research paper seeks to critically analyze insect adaptations to fire in terms of causes and implications for the future; possible solutions; and the positive and negative impact these solutions will have on local, regional, and international level.
Impact of Fire on Insects
Engstrom (2010) recognized three major extents on which fire impacts on insects. First, fire can result in death or injury to individual organisms, fire cam motivates organisms to move into or from the burned region. Toxic impacts of smoke, high temperatures, as well as oxygen depletion can result in impairment or mortality of organisms. While the habitat near the burnt can provide water, shelter, and food for some insects, other insects find the burned habitat to be suitable for their survival as it provides favorable conditions for them. As such, these insects take advantage of the prevailing post-fire conditions. Second, despite the fact that enough, some forms of insect species may survive after the occurrence of fire in a certain habitat, the aftermath processes; including immigration, predation, and starvation within the post-fire ecosystem will determine the viability of the population (Engstrom, 2010). The third effect of fire in insects is that it can result in the modification of a certain insect species and thus creating adaptations to fire. Such three levels correspond to, one, first-order, or direct impacts that take place over a short period of time; two, indirect or second-order effects which depend on the historical fire interval...
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