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Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination against Women (Essay Sample)


5-7 page essay
•Introduce the topic
•Describe two personal observations or experiences
•Explain a theory we learned about that accounts for these observations
•Must use supporting research!
•Apply the theory to the events you described –is the theory a good fit? Are there discrepancies?

Some social psychological principles or phenomena covered in a class lecture:
***these are directly from slides so if used cite (professor,2019) and I will fix.
These are only 2 chapters, so when choosing, explain from a female perspective, talk about an experience that relates to you or happened to you from a femal eperspective since it involves personal experience and observation and more so because it involves possible self-concept and perhaps being prejudiced due to being a woman or discriminated against based on being thought of or seen as “just a woman.”

1. Self-Concept: The sum total of beliefs that people have about themselves
Self-concept is made up of self-schemas
Self-Schema: Beliefs about oneself that guide processing of self-relevant information
Self-awareness: The knower aspect: act of thinking about ourselves

Mirror test.

- Self-Perception Theory: When internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain insight by observing their own behaviour
-Does our behaviour really reflects how we feel, or was it the situation that made us act that way?
Perceptions of your own motivation
-Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic
- Overjustificationeffect
Ways we can know ourselves (theoretically)
•Perceptions of our own behaviours
•Comparing ourselves to other people
•Autobiographical memories

-Self-Discrepancy Theory
- Self-presentation
-Favourable self-views
-Dunning-Kruger effect
-Implicit egotism
-Four major strategies we employ to feel better about ourselves:
•Self-serving cognitions
•Downward social comparison

2. Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
- Definitions of all 3
-Causes of the problem:
Intergroup, motivational, cognitive, and cultural factors
-Ways to reduce

Stereotypes: Associations with groups of people
•No valence is involved: Can be positive or negative or neutral
Prejudice: Negative attitudes of groups of people
•Valence is involved: Group X is bad
Discrimination: Differential treatment of groups of people
•About behaviours

If choose this topic must mention and explain each of the following:
Bias, implicit & explicit prejudice
Modern, aversive, old-fashioned racism, interracial connections
Sexism- hostile and benevolent

-causes of the problem- race is a social construct
                                         - Appearance-based signals of “outsiderness” used to identify danger, otherness, trigger own-group favouritism MENTION OUTGROUP HOMOGENITY EFFECT
-mention the Theories of Intergroup Conflict & Minimal paradigm
•Realistic Conflict Theory•
-Direct competition between groups for resources breeds hostility (Levine & Campbell, 1972)
•Relative Deprivation Theory•
-ACTUAL/ABSOLUTE resources don’t matter. PERCEIVED resource DISPARITIES lead to conflict (Walker & Smith, 2002)
-Everyone in neighborhood a multimillionaire. But Hudson’s down the street have 16 hunting falcons and a liger we are jealous and resent

-when talking about stereotypes specifically – mention subtyping & intrinsic and extrinsic behaviour explanations & the stereotype threat
-Role of self-fulfilling prophecy
- Where do stereotypes come from? Can stereotyping be fixed? – solve the issue by the contact hypothesis.

-Differences between prejudice, discrimination, stereotypes
-Explicit vs. Implicit bias
-Evolutionary roots of ingroup favouritism
-Consequences: Stereotype Threat
-Ways to reduce prejudice?


Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination against Women
Institution of affiliation
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination against Women
Humans share a multitude of similarities, but at the same, they are very diverse. Individuals that share many common characteristics are categorized into social groups that they identify with. However, most people find it hard to reconcile their differences, which may result in conflicts. Social psychologists suggest that most of these conflicts arise from stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Stereotypes refer to positive or negative assumptions that a person forms about the nature of a particular social group. These beliefs can influence the actions of these individuals. Prejudice, on the other hand, is an unjustified negative feeling or attitude towards the members of another social group. It manifests itself in different ways, which include; fear, hatred, anger, and disgust. Prejudices and stereotypes lead to discrimination, which is a behavior that results in disparate treatment of people. Gender stereotyping and discrimination is the most common source of conflicts. It is mostly committed against girls and women.

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